Dr. Michael W. Fox

Dog Vaccination Protocols

Vegetarianism: A Bioethical Imperative
Dr. Fox on the Tonight Show
In Memoriam_Feral Cat Mark Twain
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Releasing Cats To Live Outdoors
Outdoor Cats, Wildlife And Human Health
Cat and Dog Nutrition--the Thiamine Issue
Cat Food Recipe
Cat Tail Deemed To Be Good Vaccination Spot
Cat Behavior
Cat Vaccination Protocols
Declawing Cats
Feline Stomatitis Complex
Cat Litter Box Issues
Introducing A New Cat
Introducing A Dog Into Cat's Home
Choosing To Live With A Dog
Dog Vaccination Protocols
Dog Mutilations
Dog Food Recipe
Dental Problems In Companion Animals
Dog Food and Feeding Issues
Dr. Fox's Good Medicine Juice
The Truth About Manfactured Dog and Cat Food
Companion Animals Harmed By Pesticides
Dominance-based Dog Training
Dr. Fox and the Super Dog Project
Guide to Congenital & Heritable Disorders in Dogs
Dogwise E-Books
Concerning Outdoor Chaining/Tethering Of Dogs
Dogs In Shelters
Dr. Fox's Good Dog Cookie Recipe
Don't Clone Your Dog Or Cat!
The Pros and Cons of Neutering Your Dog
Recovering Canine Health And The Natural Dog
Animal Vaccination Concerns
Care For Dogs and Cats With Renal Failure
Urinary Tract Stones
Green Pet Care
Puppy and Kitten Breeding Mills
Pure Water for Cats and Dogs--and All
Dental Problems In Companion Animals
Chemical-related Human Diseases In Companion Animals
From Mineral Oil & Multiple Sclerosis to Plastics, Nanoparticles
Companion Animal Care
Companion Animals and Flea and Tick Treatments
Behavioral Problems and Drug Solutions: A Last Resort
Preventing Fleas
Domestication and Diet
Lyme Disease and Wildlife Management
Disease and Animal Rights
GMOs and Pet Food
Journal of AVMA and GMOs
Indoor and Outdoor Poison Hazards for Pets
Carrageenan In Pet Foods
Cats, Dogs and Cadmium
Fluoride In Pet Food - A Serious Health Risk?
Best Manufactured Pet Foods
Pet Food Letters
Nutrigenomics and the Pet Food Revolution
The Ethics of Krill Oil and Protein Supplements
Animal-Insensitivity Syndrome
Wolves and Human Well-being
Wolf-Dog Hybrids
Crying Wolf Too Much
Betrayal of Wolves and Public Trust
The 'One Medicine'
Pet Health Insurance
The Veterinary Profession
Pharmaceutical Cruelty In Animal Farms: Consumer Beware
Pig Parts For People
Conflicts Of Interest In The Veterinary Profession
Bioethics: Its Scope And Purpose
The Bioethics And Politics Of Manufactured Pet Foods
Animal Rights, Human Rights And Wrongs
The Future of the Veterinary Profession
Holistic Veterinary Medicine
Veterinary Ethics and Economics
Veterinary Bioethics and Animal Welfare
Principles Of Veterinary Bioethics
What Price Our Animal Relationships?
Changing Diets for Health's and Earth's Sake
Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife Reseach Needs Ethical Boundaries
Wildlife Management Practices
How Animals Suffer Around the World
Feeling for Animals and Animal Liberation
Animal Altruism and Abilty To Empathize
What Makes Animals Happy?
The Empathosphere: Animal Prescience, And Remote Sensing
Mental Effects on Physical Health: The Mind-Body Connection
Animal Spirits
Light Of Compassion
Religion, Science and Animal Rights
Animal Suffering And The God Question
Healing Animals & The Vision of One Health
Islam And Animals
Panentheism: The Spirituality Of Compassion
One Earth, One Health
Why We All Must Care For Animals and the Environment
Quality Of Life In Animals
Healing Agriculture's Broken Connections
Mammon Vs. Civil Society
Justice For All Beings And The End Of Terrorism
Universal Bill Of Rights For Animals And Nature
Science Writers' and Reporters' Political Agendas
Cambridge Declaration On Consciousness
Michael W. Fox Resume'
Dr. Fox Biographical Interview
Interview: History of Animal Welfare Science
Curriculum Vitae
Books By Dr. Fox
Dr. Fox Lectures, Seminars and Workshops
My Life For The Animals
To Kiss Salamanders and Stones


                                  A Review by Dr. Michael W. Fox

“Anytime you inject anything into a patient you have the potential of killing them”.—Prof. Ron Schultz, DVM.

The practice of giving dogs several different vaccinations against various diseases all at the same time early in life and then again every year as "boosters" for the rest of their lives is coming to a close. This is for two primary reasons: animals can have adverse reactions to vaccinations that can impair their health for the rest of their lives; routine "booster" shots are not needed since earlier vaccinations have given animals sufficient immunity to the diseases in question.

First, puppies should not be given vaccinations before 8-10 weeks of age since this can interfere with the natural immunity in their systems conferred by the colostrum or first milk of their mothers. But if the immune status of the mother is unknown, as is the situation for many to-be-adopted pups in animal shelters, vaccinations at an earlier age between 5-6 weeks is the usual protocol. Adult animals in a compromised immune state, as for example those who are ill, injured, or being given an anesthetic and operated on, such as being spayed or castrated, or for any other surgical procedure, are pregnant or nursing, or are old and infirm, should not be vaccinated.

Rabies vaccinations, unless in-field conditions make this logistically difficult, should never be given at the same time other combined vaccinations are given. Separate by at least 3 weeks.

For minimal basic vaccination  protocols, developed by Dr. Jean Dodds, see Table 1.

Studies have shown that in normal, healthy dogs at the time of vaccination, Parvovirus vaccines are good for 7 years, Rabies vaccines for 3-7 years, Distemper vaccines for 5-15 years (depending on the strain), and Adenovirus 2 vaccines for 7-9 years. Prof. Ron Schultz recommends using Merial’s 3-way combo; parvo, distemper and CAV2/hepatitis as the only relatively safe combination of vaccines.

 If your dog received all core vaccines by 16 weeks of age, have antibody blood titers evaluated at 1 year of age if you have reservations about re-vaccination.

Corona virus and giardia vaccinations for dogs are not recommended.

For dogs at risk, Leptospirosis vaccine (the four-serovar product of Fort Dodge being preferred) should be given at 12 and 15 weeks and repeated one year later. It only confers protection, however, for 3-4 months, so repeated vaccinations are called for with dogs with significant exposure risk.

 Lyme vaccine should be given to at-risk dogs but the bacterium vaccine can cause immune-complex disease so Merial’s recombinant Lyme vaccine is preferred. Again, blood serum titers should be taken to assess dog's immune status where there is doubt, rather than simply giving booster shots.

Neither Lyme disease vaccinations, that give highly unreliable protection, nor leptospirosis vaccinations should be given close to the time that any other vaccinations are given.

No vaccine can guarantee immunity, since different strains of infective agents may be involved, and animals who are stressed, suffering from poor nutrition, genetic susceptibility and concurrent disease may have impaired immune systems and lowered resistance to disease. But this does not mean that they should never be vaccinated or be routinely re-vaccinated just in case, because vaccinations can cause further immune system impairment and a host of health problems---the so called vaccinosis diseases--- that these new vaccination protocols are aimed at minimizing.

For further information, contact a holistic veterinarian in your area. A searchable list can be found at http://www.ahvma.org. Veterinarians wishing to learn more are encouraged to become members of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association at http://www.ahvma.org.

Veterinarians desiring more information, Vaccine Waiver Consent Forms  & Sample Rabies Exemption Letter, contact the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association, Tel: 410-569-0795 or e-mail Office@AHVMA.org








Age of Pups

Vaccine Type


9 - 10 weeks


14 weeks


20 weeks or older, if allowable by law


1 year


1 year




Distemper virus + Parvovirus, MLV    


Same as above




Distemper virus + Parvovirus, MLV (0ptional)


Rabies, killed 3-year product (give 3-4 weeks apart from any other vaccine)


Perform vaccine antibody titers for distemper and parvovirus every 3 yrs, or more often, if desired.  Written waiver of rabies booster, with justification by client veterinarian, with rabies antibody titer recorded, may be granted. See     www.rabieschallengefund.org          



W. Jean Dodds, DVM.  Hemopet, 938 Stanford Street, Santa Monica, CA 90403; 310-828-4804; Fax 310-828-8251; e-mail  hemopet@hotmail.com.








        To determine that animal is protected (suggested by a positive test result)


        To identify a susceptible animal (suggested by a negative test result)


        To determine whether an individual animal has responded to a vaccine


        To determine whether an individual vaccine is effectively immunizing animals


         * from: Schultz, Ford, Olsen, Scott. Vet Med, 97: 1-13, 2002 (insert)





        Distemper Virus  




       Adenovirus 2 (hepatitis)






       Corona Virus [not  recommended]


        Rabies Virus (RFFIT: non export)


Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

Aust Vet J. December 2012;90(12):468-73.

S A Mitchell1; R J Zwijnenberg; J Huang; A Hodge; M J Day

1Pfizer Animal Health, 38-42 Wharf Road, West Ryde, New South Wales 2114, Australia. sarah.mitchell@pfizer.com

2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

Article Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac() vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. METHODS: A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. RESULTS: The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac() vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines.



Veterinarians in the U.K are being urged to adopt the vaccinations of cats and dogs against “core” diseases (excluding rabies) advocated by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association to its 86 member countries.* They are similar to those that I and other veterinarians in the U.S. and Canada have been advocating for the past 15 years and more on the basis of sound science---advances in vaccinology, immunology and blood titer testing rather than personal opinion, to optimize the benefits and minimize the risks.

The core vaccinations against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus type 2 are all given to pups at 6, 12,16 weeks or older, and 26 weeks of age and at 52 weeks of age if not given at 26 weeks. Then not until 4, then 7 and then 10 years of age with the option of serum testing and then not re-vaccinating if antibody titers show good immunity.

In sum, these core vaccinations need not be given annually. Other vaccinations (non-core) may be called for depending on the region, outbreaks of infections and associated exposure risks.

*See Michael J. Day, Small animal vaccination: a practical guide for vets in the UK. The Veterinary Record, In Practice, 39: 110-118 2017.



Check the link below for a Dr. Fox C-Span feature concerning "Animal Testing"

Dr. Michael W. Fox on C-Span

--Video Link--

Dr. Michael W. Fox

What right do we humans have to exploit other animals?  Where does that right come from and what are the limits if any?  What duties or obligations do we have in our relationships with our dogs, cats and other animals domesticated and wild?

          Follow and support Caroline Kraus and her Moments of Truth Project documentary film as she travels across the U.S. asking people, who variously live, work with and care for animals, these and other relevant questions.

Is there an overriding consensus and what are the reasons why people respond very differently to these questions, which in part examine our character, culture and future?

The viewing and discussion of this kind of documentary should be part of every school curriculum and will be of interest to all who work with, profit from and care for animals. Project Home Page: http://momentsoftruthproject.com/  To see the interview with Dr. Fox go to http://momentsoftruthproject.com/dr-michael-fox/