and Animal Welfare:
the Common Wealth
Michael W. Fox
(From Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: Principles and
Practice. Allen M. Schoen
& Susan G. Wynn eds. St Louis, Mosby 1998)
We live in a complex world.
A world of such biological and ecological complexity that the element of
uncertainty is as omnipresent as intelligent organization is in Nature's
systems, processes and life forms.
Human society is similarly complex, but is not always as intelligently
self-organizing as natural ecosystems are.
It relies upon various laws and moral codes to maintain functional
integrity and the well-being of its members.
Advances in the natural (biological and physical) sciences have enabled
us to overcome, to some degree, the uncertainty principle, and to give a
measure of control over the natural world.
But such knowledge is always incomplete and the less we think we know,
the more we realize that we can never gain absolute control. Advances in the
scientific domain of
understanding are considerable, from the advent of pyrotechnology and petrochemistry
to nuclear fission and genetic engineering biotechnology.
We have not advanced to the same degree in the science of
human awareness and behavior, which is the concern of the discipline of
ethics. There are various schools or
traditions of ethical questioning, reasoning and discourse, the most relevant
of which is bioethics. The science of
bioethics considers our role and responsibilities, and the consequences of our
activities, products, processes, policies, life-styles, attitudes and values in
a much wider scope than other ethical systems.
The scope is not limited to considering human rights and interests. Equal
and fair consideration is given to all
sentient life forms, especially in terms of our demands upon them, and to our
impact on the environment and therefore upon them as well as ourselves. Equality
of consideration is an animal's
basic right. This does not mean that
animals are the same as humans, which is the fallacy of anthropomorphic and
anthropopsychic thinking. All animals
have the right to humane treatment but not all animal rights are the same as
human rights because they have different needs and interests.
Dr. Andrew Fraser was the first veterinarian to recognize
the importance of bioethics in veterinary practice and education, which he
summarized as follows:
While the most imperative objectives in welfare practice relate
to the relief of suffering, the promotion of well-being (or the welfare status
of, or within, the animal) is an ethical objective. The 2 terms, welfare and
well-being, are not synonymous. Well-being is a condition within the animal;
it is a state of good health and harmony between the animal and its
environment. Welfare certainly
incorporates much of the same, but is chiefly an external system of services
(which have the state of well-being as one objective). In other words, welfare
is exogenous while
well-being is endogenous.
Ethics require that the
general well-being of animals, used materialistically, should be ensured by
adequate standards of welfare. The
latter should be provided during the life span of these animals, however short that
life span is permitted to be. This is
in full accord with the vocational objectives inherent in veterinary
Animal bio-ethics is a
constitution of integrated ethical principles guiding animal welfare practices
and serving to control suffering. The 4
broad principles of bio-ethics have been given as: 1) responsible animal
management, with appropriate overall husbandry; 2) provision for physical
comfort, basic behavioral function, and animal health; 3) prevention or relief
of unnecessary pain or suffering; and 4) use of sentient animal life for fully
justified reasons. The role of the
veterinarian in these matters is obvious and traditional, and a strong
veterinary involvement should continue."
There are seven Golden Rules that I have identified as the
basic principles of bioethics. (See
Table I). These are generic in that
they are applicable to public policy, personal life-styles and professional and
corporate activities. They are
therefore relevant to the practice and principles of veterinary medicine. It
should be noted that bioethics is a
synthesis ethics, and of scientific and empathic knowledge, especially in the
fields of ecology and ethology, cultural anthropology and social economics.
Veterinarians belong to a unique professional guild that has
considerable empathic and scientific knowledge about animals compared to most
other academic and business professions.
They therefore have a significant, and yet largely unexplored role in
Veterinarians have been a unique association for
millennia. As interlocutors between
people, animals and nature (pan) their role and knowledge, both empathic,
scientific and instrumental, was highly valued by society. Indeed, according
to Professor Calvin
Schwabe in his book Cattle, Priests and Progress in Medicine,
the earliest veterinarians were the priest-healer members of ancient Egypt's
many dynasties. But today fewer farm
animals are being given the same individual attention or quality of veterinary
care and husbandry that they once enjoyed.
There are few veterinary experts with the knowledge of good livestock
husbandry, ethology, pasture and range management, and ecological farming
practices to advise society in these areas.
Their value is no longer recognized and most have been forced out of
business along with family farms as the decline in rural communities' quality
of life parallelled the industrialization of western agriculture.
While the welfare of farm animals in developed countries is
severely reduced by extreme overcrowding and deprivation of natural behaviors
in intensive systems of production, their welfare problems in less
industrialized countries are of a different order. There, intensive systems
are fortunately not yet prevalent (and
should be opposed), but poor nutrition, inadequate veterinary preventive and
therapeutic medicine, climatic extremes, parasitic diseases, and lack of adequate
and uncontaminated water, are all too prevalent. Long journeys to slaughter,
often on foot for days, poor handling
and slaughter facilities and inhumane slaughter methods also need to be
rectified, and market infrastructures improved. The welfare of draft animals
likewise needs more concerted
attention and enhancement for humane as well as economic reasons.
In most parts of the world it is not cost-effective for the
consumer-public to regard meat as a dietary staple. And it is not economically
possible to raise large numbers of
animals humanely for meat. In poorer
countries, as Mahatma Gandhi said, "The cattle of the rich steal the bread
of the poor." The veterinary
profession should not be part of this, and needs to acknowledge the public
health, environmental and farm animal welfare benefits of reduced meat
consumption and vegetarianism, especially for a human population of 5.6 billion
that will soon double.
Veterinarians have public health responsibilities and have
played a valuable role in helping control zoonotic diseases. But those involved in the livestock
industry should be aware of the linkage between high animal fat and protein
consumption (including seafoods) and a host of health related problems that add
to every western and industrialized nation's health care burden
(see Table II). These can be prevented
and even reversed by a change in diet to include more organic fresh fruits and
vegetables, high fiber cereals, and less refined foods, sugar, salt, animal fat
and protein. As developing countries
industrialize, the temptation to produce and consume more animal products
should be resisted.
The veterinary profession in more affluent countries has
benefited recently from the boom in the popularity of companion animals
(primarily cats and dogs), as has the "pet" food industry. Most veterinarians
now practice in this
field. Others are meat inspectors or
work in livestock disease surveillance and control. And some deal with "exotic"
pets, valuable race horses,
prized livestock, endangered and rare captive species in zoos and wildlife
parks, and with the "vivariums" and primate and other animal breeding
and caging facilities of the biomedical technology industry. Many others work
for this industry researching
and developing new products for veterinarians and human doctors to use on their
of Drug Use
But most of these pharmaceutical products are not ethical
because they have not been subjected to any kind of ethical evaluation, even
though they may be considered safe, effective and approved by the government
and appreciated by clients. For
example, many of these products have lead to the annihilation of invaluable
ethnoveterinary and ethnobotanical knowledge in colonially exploited developing
countries. And their iatrogenic,
economic and ecological consequences have been calamitous, from the overuse and
abuse of steroids, antibiotics and growth stimulants, to insecticides like DDT
and other organochlorines, and dioxins, chemical fertilizers, fungicides,
fumigants, and other harmful agrochemical products. Yet the veterinary profession
is still divided over the ethics of
using drugs for non-veterinary purposes (like genetically engineered bovine
growth hormone) to increase animals' productivity and "efficiency,"
then at the expense of animals' health and welfare.
Educational Initiatives, Roles and Services
Do we not need more text and courses in ethnoveterinary
in the veterinary teaching curriculum especially in developing countries? Also
do we not need more regional Centers
dealing with animal (including wildlife) health problems related to
environmental pollution, and a Chair in every veterinary college? Marine as
well as terrestrial life-forms,
many of whom people consume, are contaminated with chemical pollutants that
affect their ability to reproduce and resist disease, and pass on similar
effects to consumers. Farm animals also
become concentrators of a host of agrochemicals and industrial pollutants that
are as harmful to them as to consumers.
Introductory courses in veterinary ecology or ecoveterinary medicine,
along with veterinary ethology, bioethics and animal welfare science and the law
need to be included in all veterinary colleges world-wide, and also
post-graduate diploma courses for advanced study in these areas.
Veterinarians in both urban and rural areas, especially in
developing countries, have a vital public health and humanitarian role to
play. According to the World health
Organization, rabies is the second most prevalent fatal viral disease next to
AIDS. The dog, the closest companion in
the lives of millions of people, is the main carrier in third world countries. They
suffer abominably and needlessly in
these countries as a consequence. Every
country should have a post-graduate Center to train veterinarians for urban and
rural work in animal control, and welfare.
The delivery of vaccines and other essential materials necessitates a
much closer, intersectoral cooperation
and linkage between the human and veterinary medical professions, especially in
developing countries. And no county
or state public health authority
should be without a full time veterinarian with expertise in disease
epidemiology, zoonoses and environmental medicine.
Many young people become veterinarians because they like the
company of animals, would like to be with them on a full-time basis and
administer medicine to them and perform surgery to help relieve and prevent
their suffering. But in the course of
their education, their initial motivations are challenged, tested and sometimes
disparaged so they drop out or conform to serve less idealistic and more
conventional if not pecuniary ends.
These ends are never fully questioned by being subjected to
ethical appraisal. All students should
have the opportunity to do so and all teaching staff should participate. A required
course in veterinary bioethics
would be responsible for this student-faculty forum that would encourage an
atmosphere of openness and trust.
Students often fear recrimination for their candor and honesty when
their views conflict with their teachers and the establishment and when they
elect for alternatives to performing various invasive procedures on healthy
animals in their courses? But how else
are they to learn, to mature, and for us all to learn from each other if there
is not openness and mutual respect?
Inviting a controversial outside speaker, or two speakers
with opposing views, is also a Socratic approach, long overdue, to furthering
our higher educational system.
Monolithic organizations, like monocrop farming and monocultures of mind
and taste, proliferate only in an ethical vacuum. Veterinary education has become
monolithic, pedantic, overly
scientific, mechanistic and reductionistic, just as has the training of human
doctors in the conventional tradition of allopathic medicine. The revolutionary
prescription therefore is
L evolution. An evolutionary revolution
in the veterinary curriculum is both timely and ethically imperative.
I say imperative advisedly, because I do not believe that
there are any absolutes, in terms of truth or understanding, except compassion
and reverential respect for all life. I
feel this is an imperative because, as a veterinarian for over 30 years, I am convinced
that society and my profession also would benefit immeasurably if the role of
the veterinary profession, scientifically, technically and ethically, was
better defined, funded and appreciated.
Ethical Issues and Dilemmas
The veterinary profession is caught in an ethical dilemma,
having to serve the interests of clients and society on the one hand and the
interests of the animals on the other.
Conflicts of interest and responsibility are not easily resolved without
ethical deliberation. However,
veterinary ethics boards deal only with professional codes of conduct such as
possible malpractice, illegal use of drugs, and unfair competitive advertising.
Within every veterinary specialty there are ethical
questions to be raised and various practices and policies to be prohibited or
promulgated. Ear cropping and tail
docking of dogs; euthanizing healthy "pets"; the breeding of mutant
"pets" with semi-lethal and lethal deformities; housing laying hens
in battery cages, veal calves and pregnant sows in narrow crates and pens;
keeping arboreal primates in hygienic but socially and behaviorally
impoverished laboratory cage environments; developing new vaccines and drugs to
help livestock production intensify and expand in spite of ecological, public
health and economic contraindications.
An ethical approach to veterinary education and practice will play a
significant role in helping society, which is global in scope, become more
humane, compassionate, economically and spiritually viable, and ecologically
A few examples of veterinary activities past and present
show the importance of applying bioethics to objectively evaluate the risks,
benefits and long-term consequences of various activities prior to their
implementation. Colonial veterinary
services, especially in Africa, have for decades focused on increasing
livestock health and productivity.
These, along with other aid and development programs in agriculture,
like the "Green Revolution," have replaced indigenous knowledge and
effective traditional ways of treating and preventing animal (and crop)
diseases with more costly and not always reliable vaccines and drugs and less
sustainable agricultural practices. Poor
management and overstocking have caused serious environmental degradation, even
desertification. And the demise of
wildlife and biodiversity have been well documented. The combined loss of biological
and cultural diversity, i.e.,
biocultural diversity, is one of the unforeseen consequences of veterinary
participation in increasing livestock populations around the world. But his
does not mean that livestock and
veterinarians alike to not have significant roles to play in ecologically sound
and sustainable agriculture.
This example illustrates the need for inclusion of ecology
in the veterinary teaching curriculum, as well as training in cultural
anthropology and ethnoveterinary medicine.
Veterinary schools in developing countries should pay special attention
to these subjects and not unquestioningly adopt western veterinary curricula as
A second example is in the area of veterinary ethology. Without a greater understanding of the
behavior and social and environmental requirements of animals, veterinary
education remains extremely deficient.
A purely mechanistic and reductionistic approach to animal health,
disease prevention and treatment is inevitable if the "scientific
method" is so reductionistic that animals' emotions, behavioral and
socio-environmental needs, psychological stress and well being are neither
fully understood nor appreciated. This
deficiency in veterinary education is self-evident in the fact that the
profession has voiced little concern or opposition to cruel and inhumane
intensive methods of livestock production -- so called factory farms and
feedlots; and livestock handling, transportation and slaughter methods; and
until recently has done little to address the plight of primates and other
animals kept in impoverished zoo and laboratory environments.
Society, as well as the animals under our dominion, need veterinary experts who can speak
impartially but as informed and qualified authorities on how animals should be
treated. Every community and every
corporation that has any business with animals should have such veterinary
experts in their employ who have had postgraduate education in veterinary
bioethics, ethology, animal welfare science and the law. And every community
and every corporation
should aim to meet the highest standards of animal care and be open to
consultation, public scrutiny and accreditation with national animal welfare
agencies, governmental and non-governmental as the case may be.
Now with the advent of GATT and the World Trade Organization,
the need to harmonize animal health and welfare standards, and environmental,
biodiversity and endangered species protection laws and conventions
internationally is critically important.
Veterinarians are needed in this arena, and every country should have
representation in order to prevent unfair trading practices, and certified
value-based labelling of products (like "human" and
"organic") capricious technical trade barriers from being set up by
countries who refuse to adopt basic standards and codes of animal welfare and
environmental and endangered species protection.
Through the Codex Alimentarius, the international
standards currently being formulated to establish global food quality and
safety, that the veterinary profession
has an important role to play. The FDA’s Codex Veterinarius, inspired by the
German Veterinary Association for the Protection of Animals, is a promising
template for further professional development and authority. Humane, as well as
sanitary, slaughter facilities and practices coupled with humane transportation
to reduce stress and pathogen proliferation, which is a public health concern,
are important Codex considerations.
The International Standards for organically certified foods should, with
respect to meat, eggs and dairy produce, include reference to animals' living
conditions (notably outdoor access) and to the farming systems themselves,
which should be ecologically sound.
Livestock, crop production and range management practices should be
ecologically integrated since monocrop/monoculture farming is the antithesis of
Veterinary bioethics would also help in resolving cultural
differences in animal use and abuse. As
we move toward a more integrated fair trade and world market system, cultural
differences in attitudes toward animals and in their treatment will be more
apparent to the public eye. It is fair
to say at this time that while some countries have better animal and
environmental protection laws and enforcement than others, no country is without
some traditional or commercial form of animal exploitation that does not cause
unjustifiable suffering and which is ethically unacceptable.
Health and Well-Being
Veterinary education includes many different disciplines,
all of which need to be integrated since the best approach to animal health and
welfare is interdisciplinary or 'holistic' since most animal diseases are
multifactor and pluricausal.
Health is not the absence of disease but a state of harmony
or homeostasis between mind and body (psyche and soma) and between the animal
and its social relationships. Applied
animal ethology is relevant in understanding "ethostasis", where the
animal is in harmony in terms of its ethos or intrinsic nature and
The animal's ethos is linked with its telos, its
final end or purpose. This telos
(see Fig. 1) in instrumental terms is the animal's place or role in
the environment or ecosystem (the ecos) to which it is biologically
pre-adapted. Applied veterinary ecology
seeks to provide optimal environments that satisfy the animal's ethos (or
behavioral needs), and from a very practical sense seeks to maximize the
ecological utility of farm animals in sustainable agricultural systems. Hence,
from a scientific as well as an
ethical perspective keeping animals in intensive confinement systems that
ignore the animals' ethos, telos and ecos, are unacceptable. The flawed thinking
of changing the animal
to fit the system must be challenged and environments designed to better fit
the animals' health and behavioral needs.
The same criticisms can be leveled at the way animals are kept in most
zoos and laboratory animal research facilities.
From the more holistic perspective of veterinary ecology we
can say that healthy soils mean healthy crops and forages which in turn mean
healthier animals (and people).
Nutrient deficiencies in soils, exacerbated by misuse of agrochemicals
and poor farming practices (especially monoculture/monocrop farming) increase
crop vulnerability and livestock susceptibility to disease, which in turn lead
to overuse and misuse of pesticides and veterinary medicines.
For example, a nutrient deficiency of zinc, selenium or
vitamin E will impair an animal's immune system. Overcrowding, poor stockmanship,
fear, contaminated water and
heat stress are some of the many other factors that will increase an animal's
susceptibility to disease. In
immunocompromised animals, bacteria can mutate and become more virulent,
increasing the spread of disease. often compounded by parasitic infestation and
viral and mycoplasma infections.
The "four pillars" of holistic veterinary
preventive medicine are, therefore, right environment, right
nutrition, right attention and understanding (i.e., good
stockmanship), and right breeding, since heredity plays an important
role in stress and disease resistance.
But no matter how well the animals are fed, bred and housed, the quality
of their relationship with their caretakers and the attitude and understanding
of the latter toward
them is the ultimate determinant of their well being.
of Animal Caretakers
Several studies have revealed how a positive affectionate
social bond with animals helps enhance disease resistance in laboratory
animals. This phenomenon is also
apparent in the health and productivity of farm animals and the trainability of
dogs and other species.
When animal caretakers express a positive attitude toward
farm animals, and when the animals under their care are not afraid of humans,
sows have more piglets, hens lay more eggs and cows produce more milk. Meat
quality and growth rates in broilers,
piglets and beef calves are also better when there is a strong social bond with
However, agribusiness ignores this evident fact in favor of
the cost-savings of developing large-scale, labor-saving, intensive livestock
and poultry systems, where one person is in charge of hundreds, even thousands
of animals and of using drugs to make animals productive and less prone to
disease. You can argue that a good
stockperson with a positive attitude toward animals on a large factory farm
will do a better job than one who is indifferent or whom the animals fear. However,
working in large intensive production
systems will adversely affect the behavior and attitudes of stockpersons. One
noticeable difference is more aggressive
behavior towards animals which reduces their productivity and overall well
but not to such a degree that such systems are not profitable anymore.
Animals have served us in myriad ways over millennia and we
owe them a great debt of gratitude. We
have yet to fully express this gratitude in a more compassionate, egalitarian
and mutually enhancing symbiosis. The
bond we share with animals today is primarily one of domination and
exploitation rather than of service and communion. This bond is even shifting
toward one of "genetic
parasitism", where human genes are being incorporated into the genomes of
animals. Such transgenic creatures being
developed to serve as models for various genetic and developmental disorders in
humans, to be blood and organ donors, and to produce "humanized" milk
and various pharmaceutical products.
Scientific research is rediscovering the many human benefits
of a strong human-animal bond. I prefer
to call it the human-non-human animal bond, since we humans are animals after
all. Other animals have been shown in a
variety of documented studies to help people overcome great emotional
difficulties and physical and psychological handicaps. So, we should reciprocate and help them, as
by saving endangered species, by restoring and protecting their habitats, and
by alleviating and preventing the suffering of animals through the combined
efforts of veterinary medical science and bioethics.
justice and trans-species democracy
and enhance biocultural
WESTERN DISEASES OF
KNOWN AND POSSIBLE DIETARY ORIGIN1
GASTROINTESTINAL - Constipation, Hiatus
hernia, Appendicitis, Diverticular
disease, Colorectal polyps, Crohn's disease (regional ileitis), Celiac disease,
Peptic ulcer, Hemorrhoids, Ulcerative colitis.
CARDIOVASCULAR - Coronary heart disease,
Cerebrovascular disease (stroke),
Essential hypertension, Deep vein thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Pelvic
phleboliths, Varicose veins.
METABOLIC - Obesity, Diabetes
(type II or noninsulin dependent),
Cholesterol gallstones, Renal stones, Osteoporosis, Gout.
CANCER - Colorectal, Breast,
Prostate, Lung, Endometrium, Ovarian
- Diabetes (type I or
insulin dependent), Autoimmune thyroiditis
Immunoinsufficiency, Infantile hyperactivity, Migraine, Multiple sclerosis,
Pernicious anemia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Spina bifida, Thyrotoxicosis
Burkitt in Western Diseases: Their
Dietary Prevention and Reversibility. N.J. Temple and D.P. Burkitt (eds).
Totowa, New Jersey. Humana Press. 1994.
POSTCRIPT TO THIS CHAPTER (Not included in the original text).
BIOETHICS OF COMPASSIONATE CARE
Veterinary bioethics calls on every
veterinarian to apply the bioethical principle of compassionate care in their
treatment of animal patients and in the
advice given to client-owners and care-givers. This helps override the
situational ethics of treating animals kept as commodities on factory farms
where optimal care of animals on an individual basis is not normally provided
for reasons of cost; and where a companion animal is not given optimal care
because the owner is of limited financial means or does not feel that the
animal is worth the expense of costly diagnostic and treatment procedures.
Rather than compromising their professional
standards and integrity in such situations, veterinarians have a moral
obligation to advocate compassionate care regardless of the context and
situational ethics in which their services are required. This is because the
bioethics of compassionate care, which is based on sound science and empathy,
balancing objective reason and subjective/intuitive feeling, is a fundamental
human responsibility and every animal’s basic right. Furthermore, compassionate
care is vital to animals’ health, welfare, and physical and psychological well-
being. It is therefore as essential a component of holistic, integrative, and
preventive veterinary medicine as is caring for the land a vital aspect of
Other professions and business enterprises
are similarly being called to accountability and responsibility, just as all of
us in our personal lives must find ways to cause less harm to the natural world
and to animals domesticated and wild, in the process of satisfying our basic
needs. To realize the long term benefits of applying bioethics in our
decision-making and consumer-choices, to our own health, to the economy, and to
the entire life community of the Earth, means living mindfully, and by the
guiding principle of compassionate care.
No new laws, government oversight,
international conventions can equal the profound benefits that will come from
the incorporation of bioethics into the veterinary and medical teaching
curricula, and into every level of society.
 A. Fraser (1991) p. 932
in Merck Veterinary Manual. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co.
 1978, Minnesota,
University of Minnesota Press.
for example see C. Schwabe Veterinary Medicine and
Human Health 3rd Edn. (1984),
Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins.
For extensive documentation see N.J. Temple and D.P.
Burkitt (1994) Western Diseases:
Their Dietary Prevention and Reversibility, Totowa, New Jersey,
For example, see Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Asia,
International Institute for Rural Reconstruction, Y.C. James Yen Center, Silang
Phillipines (1995) and C.M. McCorkle et al. (eds), Ethnoveterinary Research
and Development, London, Intermediate Technology Publications (in Press).
See C.M. McCorkle, Intersectoral Health care Delivery
in Alternative Perspectives on Health:
An Ecological Approach, J. Chesworth (ed.), Thousand Oaks,
California, Sage Publications. (1995).
See Fox, M.W., (1992), The Place of Farm Animals in
Humane Sustainable Agriculture, Washington, D.C., The Humane Society of the
United States, and C.M. McCorkle (ed.), (1992), Plants, Animals and
People: Agropastoral Systems Research,
Boulder, CO, Westview Press. Bayer, W. Waters-Bayer, A. (1989), Crop-livestock
Interactions for Sustainable Agriculture, Gatekeeper Series Briefing Paper,
Sustainable Agriculture Programme, London, International Institute for
Environment and Development. Bostid/NRC, (1991), Microlivestock,
Little-known Small Animals With a Promising Economic Future, Washington,
D.C., National Academy Press for the Board on Science and Technology for
International Development, the National Research Council.
See M.W. Fox (1986) Laboratory Animal
Husbandry: Ethology, Welfare and
Experimental Variables, Albany, New York, State University of New York
For an excellent text for animal caretakers, see R.
Kilgour and C. Dalton (1984), Livestock Behavior: A Practical Guide,
Boulder, CO, Westview Press.
For a comprehensive review of this fascinating and
important aspect of the human-animal bond, see P.H. Hemsworth, et al. (1993)
The human-animal relationship in agriculture and its consequences for the
animal. Animal Welfare (Universities
Federation for Animal Welfare)2:33-51.
For details, see J.F. Seabrook (1994) The effect of
production systems on the behavior and attitudes of stockpersons. pp. 252-8
in Proc. 4th Zodiac
Symposium. Biological Basis of
Sustainable Animal Production. EAAP. Publ.. No. 67. Waneningen, The
See M.W. Fox (2004) Killer foods: When Scientists
Manipulate Genes, Better is Not Always Best. Guilford CT. The Lyons Press.
For a recent comprehensive review, see A.T.B. Edney
(1992) Companion animals and human health.
Veterinary Record, April 4, p. 285-87.