Dr. Michael W. Fox

Guide to Congenital & Heritable Disorders in Dogs














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GUIDE TO CONGENITAL AND

HERITABLE DISORDERS IN DOGS

 

 

Includes Genetic Predisposition to Diseases

 

 

 

Special thanks to W. Jean Dodds, D.V.M. for researching and compiling the information contained in this guide. Dr. Dodds is a world-renowned vaccine research scientist with expertise in hematology, immunology, endocrinology and nutrition.

 

 

 

Published by The Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association

 

P.O. Box 208, Davis, CA 95617, Phone: 530-759-8106; Fax: 530-759-8116

 

First printing: August 1994, revised August 1997, November 2000, January 2004, March 2006, and May 2011.


Introduction:

 

Purebred dogs of many breeds and even mixed breed dogs are prone to specific abnormalities which may be familial or genetic in nature. Often, these health problems are unapparent to the average person and can only be detected with veterinary medical screening.

 

This booklet is intended to provide information about the potential health problems associated with various purebred dogs.

 

 

 

Directory

 

 

 

Section I

 

 

A  list  of  182  more  commonly  known  purebred  dog  breeds,  each  of  which  is accompanied by a number or series of numbers that correspond to the congenital and heritable diseases identified and described in Section II.

 

 

 

Section II

 

An alphabetical listing of congenital and genetically transmitted diseases that occur in purebred dogs. Each disease is assigned an identification number, and some diseases are followed by the names of the breeds known to be subject to those diseases.

 

 

 

How to use this book:

 

Refer to Section I to find the congenital and genetically transmitted diseases associated with a breed or breeds in which you are interested. Refer to Section II to find the names and definitions of those diseases.


Disclaimer:

 

This report was designed to catalogue the identified congenital and hereditary disorders found in purebred dogs and to describe other common conditions that are thought or known to be genetic in origin because they appear with higher-than-expected frequency in  certain  breeds  or  because  the  genetics  have  been  determined  in  the  refereed scientific literature.

 

 

 

The knowledge of and experience with nonhuman animal diseases is always changing, and new diseases are discovered each year. As a result, this catalogue cannot be complete. Every attempt has been made, nevertheless, to provide the latest information from published articles in scientific and popular journals, from review chapters written by veterinary  and  other  professionals,  and  from  breed-club  literature  provided  by designated representatives of individual breed clubs.

 

The conditions listed in the Guide to Congenital and Heritable Disorders in Dogs occur with different degrees of frequency and severity from one breed to the next. Hip dysplasia, umbilical hernias, and allergies, for example, are common conditions found in many  breeds,  whereas  serious  malformations  (such  as  the  lysosomal  ‘storage’ diseases) and life-threatening diseases (such as hemophilia and certain cancers) are found  with  less  frequency.  The  impact  of  a  particular  disorder  on  the  health  and longevity of the breed or breeds that it affects will depend on the nature and severity of that disorder. Therefore, no attempt has been made to assign priority among the diseases identified in this catalogue. This sort of information should be sought from veterinarians  and  other  medical  professionals  with  relevant  experience  and  from national breed-club representatives, whose names can be obtained from the American Kennel Club, 51 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010.


Section I:

 

Aberdeen terrier (Scottish Terrier): 324

 

Affenpinscher: 12, 55, 98, 218, 235, 236, 330

 

Afghan hound: 14, 42, 65, 96, 114, 121, 135, 145, 147, 166, 192, 206a, 211, 221, 221a, 239,

245, 256, 269, 270, 312, 330

 

Airedale terrier: 7, 9, 48, 65, 88, 103, 122, 140, 146, 148, 165, 166, 168, 192, 206a, 230, 256,

269, 270, 273a, 312, 314, 318, 330

 

Akbash: 22, 23, 27, 152, 166, 250, 276, 285, 316, 318

 

Akita: 9, 10, 11, 27, 31, 43, 65, 71, 103, 114, 115, 131, 135, 137, 140, 146, 152, 156, 166, 172,

178a, 192, 193a, 199, 206, 221, 221a, 239, 256, 258a, 270, 273a, 291, 311a, 312, 318, 329,

330

 

Alaskan klee kai: 9a, 27, 42, 70, 120, 159a, 166, 192, 235, 236, 262,312

 

Alaskan malamute: 13, 42, 59, 65, 67, 80, 85, 89, 120, 121, 122, 128a, 135, 144, 147, 148,

150, 152, 166, 192, 206a, 213, 221, 221a, 250b, 256, 266, 299b, 312, 330, 334

 

American bulldog: 42, 80, 95, 103, 152, 166, 214,330

 

American cocker spaniel: 1, 2, 10, 12, 16a, 18, 21, 26, 27, 38, 38a, 42, 43, 54, 55, 64, 65, 69,

72, 73, 81, 85b, 88, 94, 94a, 95, 103, 107, 109, 121, 123, 135, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152,

154, 166, 171, 173, 179, 181, 186, 188, 192, 193a, 197, 220, 221, 221a, 226, 228, 235, 236,

242, 245, 250, 254, 256, 266, 270, 275, 276, 286, 307, 311a, 312, 318, 319, 320, 330

 

American Eskimo: 10, 21, 22, 81, 156, 166, 239, 263, 303a

 

American foxhound: 78, 199, 290, 311

 

American pit bull terrier: 9a, 10, 16a, 42, 61d, 80,166

 

American Staffordshire terrier: 16a, 42, 44a, 47, 54, 55, 88, 103, 143a, 152,166, 192, 193a,

204a, 214, 221, 221a, 256, 312

 

American water spaniel: 42, 150, 270

 

Antarctic husky: 103, 147

 

Australian cattle dog (Australian blue heeler): 42, 78, 109, 121, 124b, 147, 149, 152, 166,

171, 177, 186, 193a, 200, 214, 221, 228, 245, 256, 270, 318, 319

 

Australian kelpie: 16a, 58, 166, 199, 203, 256

 

Australian shepherd: 16a, 42, 52, 55, 58, 78, 86, 89, 152, 166, 176a, 192, 193a, 199, 203,

214, 221, 221a, 245, 256, 269, 270, 287, 312, 318, 328,329, 330


Australian terrier: 85, 185, 256, 270

 

Azawakh: 51, 109, 292, 332

 

Basenji: 27, 56, 59, 66, 124c, 146, 166, 171, 172, 192, 194, 245, 256,263, 268, 270, 312, 318

 

Basset hound: 5, 9, 9a, 15, 24a, 27, 31, 61a, 70, 94, 103, 105, 109, 114, 120, 121, 131, 135,

136, 140, 146, 147, 157, 159a, 160b, 166,168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 186, 190, 192, 193,

196, 221, 221a, 222,226, 231, 235, 245, 249, 250, 256, 273a, 274, 291, 299, 311, 312, 318,

330, 332

 

Beagle: 10, 11, 21, 34, 37, 42, 43, 54, 55, 65, 72, 80, 88, 94a, 109, 114, 120, 121, 135, 136,

146, 147, 150, 157, 166, 168, 173, 182, 188a, 192, 193a, 202, 204, 212, 220, 227, 242, 245,

256, 260, 267, 270, 275, 280, 310, 312, 327, 330

 

Bearded collie: 9a, 16a, 27, 42, 65, 146, 152, 159a, 166, 192, 239, 245, 256, 269, 270, 286,

303, 311a, 312

 

Bedlington terrier: 2, 23, 32a, 42, 52a, 64, 88, 94, 184, 199, 210, 223, 256, 265, 266, 269, 270

 

Belgian malinois: 109, 152, 166, 256

 

Belgian sheepdog (Groenendael): 16a, 42, 109, 152, 166, 204a, 230, 256, 269, 270

 

Belgian tervuren: 42, 109, 166, 221, 221a, 230, 245b, 256

 

Bernese mountain dog: 16a, 20, 42, 46, 47, 54, 55, 95, 103, 149, 149d, 152, 153a, 166, 194b,

221, 221a, 255, 256, 258a, 269, 318

 

Bichon frise: 42, 53, 65, 103, 109, 110, 122, 148, 166, 235, 250, 269,270, 322a, 331a

 

Black and tan coonhound: 94, 103, 122, 148, 152, 221, 221a, 252

 

Black Russian terriers: 95, 152, 166, 192, 256, 312, 321, 322

 

Bloodhound: 16a, 31, 94, 103, 114, 131, 152, 166, 179, 181, 195, 221, 221a, 245, 324

 

Blue tick hound: 136, 193a, 221, 221a

 

Border collie: 2, 16a, 52, 58, 64, 65, 86, 109, 149, 152, 186, 214, 221, 221a, 256

 

Border terrier: 17, 39, 42, 58, 68, 70, 126, 145, 186, 196, 217, 235, 248, 256, 270, 324, 327

 

Borzoi (Russian wolfhound): 31, 36, 42, 118, 131, 152, 155, 166, 192, 199, 200, 230, 245,

256, 270, 312, 330

 

Boston terrier: 10, 12, 17, 22, 39, 42, 54, 55, 65, 67, 68, 71, 78, 80, 88, 90, 103, 112, 114, 135,

145, 151, 154, 159, 166, 171, 174, 179, 181, 196, 197, 235, 236, 237, 248, 256, 262, 275, 295,

304, 308


Bouvier des Flandres: 16a, 27, 42, 55, 74, 90, 94, 100, 103, 131, 135, 152, 166, 184a, 221,

221a, 300, 318, 330

 

Boxer: 3, 6, 8, 10, 16a, 21, 22, 24, 38, 38a, 42, 67, 72, 75, 80, 81, 83, 85b, 88, 94a, 99, 103,

113, 114, 119, 121, 131, 134, 139, 149, 153, 156, 166, 192, 193, 196, 214a, 221, 221a, 242a,

250, 256, 277, 293, 294, 297, 300, 304a, 312, 317, 325, 330

 

Briard: 42, 61e, 105, 166, 231, 256, 330

 

Brittany: 42, 44a, 47, 55, 61b, 61d, 88, 109, 121, 147, 149c, 166, 186, 221, 221a, 256, 270

 

Brussels griffon: 1, 42, 54, 55, 88, 152, 154, 185, 235, 256, 278, 281

 

Bullmastiff: 3, 27, 31, 51, 55, 88, 103, 114, 131, 135, 152, 166, 192, 193, 221, 221a, 245, 256,

270, 273, 280, 312, 325

 

Bull terrier: 7, 12, 21, 27, 37b, 70, 78, 80, 81, 94, 103, 130, 143a, 149b, 171, 186, 192, 196,

201, 221, 221a, 235, 250b, 261, 264a, 266a, 294, 312, 318, 333

 

Canaan dog: 70, 95, 109, 152, 166, 221, 221a, 235, 256

 

Cairn terrier: 1, 21, 42, 48, 68, 75, 81, 85,121, 122, 135, 136, 147, 148,149, 149c, 166, 171,

186, 193a, 199a, 252a, 256, 263, 270, 330

 

Cardigan Welsh corgi: 9a, 61a, 75, 90, 103, 135, 159a, 169, 173, 186, 245,256, 270

 

Cavalier King Charles spaniel: 37b, 42, 65, 85, 88, 103, 114a, 124d, 166, 179, 199, 201, 235,

249, 256, 270, 305, 311a

 

Chart Polski (Polish Greyhound): 38, 85b

 

Chesapeake Bay retriever: 42, 88, 103, 114, 152, 166, 192, 221, 221a, 256, 270, 312, 330

 

Chihuahua: 55, 57, 65, 70, 87, 103, 121, 135, 147, 149, 154, 160, 162, 166, 175, 179, 181,

186, 201, 206, 214, 221, 221a, 235, 256, 260, 313

 

Chinese crested: 21, 44a, 85, 143a, 166, 271

 

Chinese shar pei: 10, 11, 21, 22, 29, 72a, 80, 81, 94, 95, 103, 128, 129,130, 135, 152, 166,

168, 172, 186, 187, 202a, 221, 221a, 226, 235, 250, 256, 270, 276, 277a, 295, 319, 326

 

Chinook: 21, 22, 70, 98a, 109, 152, 166.

 

Chow chow: 9b, 21, 27, 31, 42, 48, 55, 61, 80, 81, 88, 94, 95, 98, 103, 130, 135, 140, 152,

160a, 165, 166, 172, 192, 193, 197, 204, 221, 221a, 230, 239, 245, 250, 256, 273a, 280, 312

 

Clumber spaniel: 94, 103, 152, 309, 319, 324

 

Collie: 33, 37, 42, 45, 52, 58, 59, 60, 65, 73, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 89, 103, 109, 121, 126, 131,


140, 147, 152, 166, 171, 176, 176a, 192, 199, 203, 208, 209, 220, 221, 221a, 236, 238, 239,

245, 250, 256, 269, 270, 273a, 312, 318, 330

 

Coton de Tulear: 21, 44a, 78, 115, 152, 166, 192, 200, 235, 312

 

Curly-coated retriever: 42, 88, 94, 103, 137, 193a, 256, 299b

 

Dalmatian: 2, 10, 22, 32a, 38, 64, 78, 80, 81, 83, 85b, 88, 103, 129, 130, 135, 136, 140, 143a,

152, 166, 184a, 192, 193a, 199, 214, 221, 221a, 230, 250b, 256, 258a, 268, 273a, 275, 294,

312, 321, 322, 322a

 

Dandie Dinmont terrier: 3, 42, 67, 87, 97, 103, 135, 149, 152, 166, 173, 235, 245, 281

 

Doberman pinscher: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9a, 27, 35, 38, 42, 51, 52a, 53, 59, 60a, 64, 68, 80, 85b, 103,

105, 121, 127, 129, 138a, 140, 143a, 146,147, 152, 161, 166, 170, 173, 182, 192, 199, 206a,

221, 221a, 225,231, 239, 243, 245, 250, 251, 256, 266, 266a, 267, 270, 273a, 292,303a, 304a,

312, 328, 330

 

Dutch shepherd: 27, 109

 

English bulldog: 1, 3, 6, 19, 42, 54, 55, 57, 80, 88, 90, 94, 98, 103, 116, 128, 129, 130, 145,

152, 154, 164, 166, 179, 181, 193, 196, 201, 205, 217, 242, 245, 250, 260, 261, 278, 280, 287,

308, 313, 321, 322, 325, 330

 

English cocker spaniel: 42, 70, 88, 94, 103, 119, 135, 146, 147, 149b, 150, 166, 177, 186,

214, 221, 221a, 226, 236, 245, 256, 259, 270, 304, 330

 

English foxhound: 78, 109, 152, 266a, 290

 

English setter: 16a, 27, 31, 42, 61, 68, 78, 91, 94, 103, 121, 124b, 147, 152, 160, 166, 177,

181, 188a, 192, 193a, 214, 221, 221a, 256, 258a, 312, 323, 330

 

English shepherd: 152, 166

 

English springer spaniel: 9a, 10, 12, 18, 26, 27, 42, 43, 54, 55, 59, 65, 69, 72, 88, 94, 94a, 95,

103, 107, 109, 121, 123, 124, 129b, 135, 140, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 154, 159a, 160a,

166, 171, 173, 188, 193a, 197, 206, 206a, 213, 220, 221, 221a, 226, 228, 235, 236, 242, 245,

245a, 254, 256, 264a, 266, 270, 273a, 275, 276, 286, 307, 318, 319, 320, 330

 

English toy spaniel (King Charles and Ruby Blenheim spaniels): 42, 55, 65, 85, 103, 143,

235, 249, 270, 311a, 318

 

Eurasier: 9a, 88, 94, 103, 152, 159a, 166, 192, 235,312

 

Field spaniel: 14, 42, 152, 166, 256, 270

 

Finnish spitz: 85, 95, 109,152, 166, 235

 

Flat-coated retriever: 16a, 42, 88, 94, 103, 152, 153a, 166, 256, 286a


French bulldog: 21, 42, 54, 55, 81, 88, 90, 98, 103, 119, 121, 122, 145, 147, 148, 172, 173,

261, 330

 

German pinscher: 27, 42, 95, 152, 166, 330

 

German shepherd: 10, 21, 27, 31, 36, 38, 42, 44, 54, 55, 59, 65, 72, 72b, 75, 79a, 81, 83, 85b,

86, 89, 94a, 95, 102, 103, 105, 109, 112, 114, 121, 122, 129a, 130, 221a, 131, 137, 140, 143a,

147, 148, 149c, 152, 166, 168, 171a, 180, 186, 188a, 190a, 191, 192, 193a, 194, 196a, 202b,

208, 213, 214a, 218a, 220, 221, 221a, 225, 226, 229, 230, 231,236, 238, 241, 243, 247, 250,

250b, 256, 258a, 266, 270, 273a, 276,283, 299b, 300, 306, 312, 316, 320, 327a, 330

 

German short-haired pointer: 8, 9a, 42, 65, 103, 114, 124b, 125,131, 150, 152, 159a, 166,

177, 188a, 191, 193a, 196, 197, 206, 214, 221, 221a, 230, 256, 300, 311, 330

 

German wire-haired pointer (Drathaar): 27, 42, 103, 148, 152, 166, 192, 221, 221a, 270, 302,

312, 330

 

Giant schnauzer: 16a, 42, 89,105, 135, 146, 152, 155, 158, 166, 190a, 192, 218a, 221, 221a,

231, 256, 269, 270, 276, 311a, 312, 327b

 

Goldendoodle (hybrid): 9a, 152, 159a, 166, 192,312, 330

 

Golden retriever: 7, 9, 10, 16a, 21, 22, 27, 38, 42, 49a, 52a, 59, 65, 81, 85, 85b, 88, 94, 95,

103, 121, 129, 129a, 130, 140, 143a, 146, 147, 149, 152, 166, 178, 192, 193, 193a, 204a, 206,

220, 221, 221a, 245, 250, 250b, 256, 258a, 262, 266a, 273a, 300, 308a, 312, 328, 329

 

Gordon setter: 31, 42, 44a, 45, 47, 103, 128a, 131, 152, 166, 221, 221a, 256, 179, 181, 270,

307

 

Great Dane: 6, 7, 9a, 31, 36, 38, 42, 48, 50, 51, 61, 75, 78, 80, 83, 85b, 88, 94, 103, 114, 131,

135, 144, 152, 153, 155, 158, 159a, 166,176, 192, 198, 199, 201, 204a, 211, 221, 221a, 225,

243, 250, 255, 256, 270, 292, 298, 312, 330

 

Great Pyrenees: 5, 9, 16, 31, 42, 78, 80, 94, 103, 122, 124, 131, 148, 152, 166, 195, 221,

221a, 244, 245, 256, 303a, 304, 311a, 325

 

Greyhound: 14, 38, 42, 65, 72, 85b, 88, 90, 94a, 109, 112, 121, 143a, 147,155, 166, 186,

190a, 218a, 220, 221, 221a, 225, 230, 237, 245, 256, 279, 326, 330

 

Harrier: 152

 

Havanese: 10, 42, 140, 149, 166, 192, 245, 256, 269, 273a, 312

 

Ibizan hound: 10, 14, 42, 70, 166, 270, 311a

 

Irish red and white setter: 37a, 166, 192, 312

 

Irish setter: 7, 10, 16a, 21, 22, 27, 31, 37a, 40, 42, 61, 65, 79, 81, 88, 103, 109, 121, 129, 130,

131, 132, 136a, 138a, 140, 146, 147, 152,166, 168, 172, 186, 191, 192, 198, 206a, 220, 221,


221a, 225, 243, 245, 250, 256, 258a, 262, 264, 273a, 275, 276, 311a, 312, 320, 324, 328, 329

 

Irish terrier: 37b, 75, 85a, 204a, 256

 

Irish water spaniel: 42, 152, 166, 167, 192, 195, 245, 256, 312, 330

 

Irish wolfhound: 10, 31, 38, 42, 85b, 103, 131, 149, 152, 155, 158, 166, 221, 221a, 225, 250,

330

 

Italian greyhound: 14, 42, 61, 65, 70, 109, 135, 143a, 166, 220, 243, 256, 311a

 

Japanese spaniel (Japanese chin): 42, 57, 70, 88, 103, 110, 137, 235, 256, 313

 

Keeshond: 1, 9b, 42, 63, 71, 85, 94, 109, 135, 149, 156, 165, 166, 180, 197, 201, 220, 253a,

260, 266, 274, 310, 327, 330

 

Kerry blue terrier: 42, 44a, 45, 47, 88, 103, 124, 141, 146, 150, 166, 179, 181, 207, 256, 286b,

311a, 320, 330

 

Komondor: 42, 103, 152, 166, 285

 

Kuvasz: 42, 103, 152, 166, 221, 221a, 303a, 330

 

Labradoodle (hybrid): 9a, 152, 159a, 166, 192, 256, 312, 330

 

Labrador retriever: 3, 7, 9, 9a, 10, 16a, 21, 22, 40, 42, 52a, 59, 68, 75, 77, 78, 81, 85, 88, 89,

94, 95, 103, 109, 114a, 121, 122, 129a,143a, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 158, 159a, 160, 166,

192, 193, 194b,197, 204a, 206a, 221, 221a, 244, 245, 256, 257, 258, 269, 270, 276, 282, 304a,

312, 315, 330

 

Lakeland terrier: 42, 70, 88, 166, 186, 245, 319, 320, 330

 

Lhasa apso: 1, 10, 22, 42, 65, 81, 88, 94, 103, 140, 148, 166, 171, 173,

179, 181, 189, 235, 256, 266, 266a, 273a, 275, 330

 

Leonberger: 9, 9a, 10, 16a, 21, 27, 152, 159a, 166, 192, 221, 221a, 312

 

Lowchen: 42, 235, 236

 

Maltese: 1, 30, 57, 70, 78, 88, 110, 135, 140, 146, 149, 152, 160, 166, 192, 235, 256, 270,

273a, 311a, 312, 313, 330, 331a

 

Mastiff: 27, 31, 65, 80, 94, 103, 131, 166, 193, 221, 221a, 245, 256, 270, 325

 

Mexican hairless (Xoloitzcuintle): 6, 9, 81, 129, 142, 216, 271, 285

 

Miniature bull terrier: 27, 103, 166, 186

 

Miniature dachshund: 4, 5, 42, 43a, 54, 55, 61, 65, 70, 72, 75, 78, 80, 85, 94a, 129, 146, 156,

161, 166, 173, 176, 178, 187, 196, 199, 206a, 214, 216, 224, 228, 230, 237, 239, 250, 256, 263,

267, 275, 296, 297, 311a, 326, 328, 330


Miniature pinscher: 42, 65, 85, 87, 103, 128a, 140, 171, 179, 181, 185, 202b, 230, 235, 256,

273a, 299b

 

Miniature poodle: 5, 10, 21, 22, 26, 27, 42, 49, 57, 70, 78, 81, 85, 88, 92, 93, 103, 109, 110,

111, 121, 135, 136, 140, 144, 146, 147, 156, 165, 166, 173, 175, 184, 186, 192, 193a, 199, 206,

206a, 220, 221, 221a, 223, 226, 230, 235, 236, 250, 256, 269, 273a, 275, 294, 311a, 312, 313,

322a, 327, 330

 

Miniature schnauzer: 10, 22, 24a, 42, 70, 71, 76, 85, 88, 103, 112, 121, 144a, 146, 147, 149,

149a, 156, 157, 157c, 166, 179, 181, 185, 192, 206a, 214, 221, 221a, 256, 259, 260, 266a, 270,

271, 284, 301, 311a, 312, 322a, 330

 

Neapolitan mastiff: 42, 83, 94, 103, 152, 158, 166, 221, 245, 256

 

Newfoundland: 9a, 21, 25, 31, 38, 42, 75, 81, 83, 85b, 94, 95, 103, 114,129a, 131, 146, 152,

166, 183, 192, 204a, 206, 221, 221a, 236, 239, 300, 308a, 311a, 312, 320, 327, 330

 

Norfolk terrier: 109, 149, 166, 201, 304a

 

Norwegian dunkerhound: 78, 199

 

Norwegian elkhound: 42, 88, 103, 135, 152, 166, 180, 186, 256, 266, 275, 276, 302

 

Norwich terrier: 65, 166, 186, 330

 

Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever: 9a, 42, 152,159a, 166, 256

 

Old English sheepdog: 9a, 27, 38, 42, 44a, 45, 47, 80, 85b, 88, 103, 122, 129, 140, 146, 148,

149, 152, 159a, 161, 166, 172, 176a, 192, 199, 221, 221a, 226, 250, 256, 269, 270, 273a, 283,

292, 311a, 312, 328, 330

 

Otter hound: 119, 152, 166, 221, 221a, 249, 274, 311, 330

 

Papillon: 9a, 12, 42, 65, 78, 103, 128a, 159a, 166, 235, 256, 330

 

Parson (Jack) Russell terrier: 20, 44a, 78, 123, 186, 206, 235, 330

 

Pekingese: 42, 57, 88, 94, 103, 116, 128, 146, 162, 166, 171, 173, 179, 181, 184, 186, 199,

230, 246, 256, 277, 278, 304, 311a, 313, 317, 318

 

Pembroke Welsh corgi: 27, 42, 50, 61a, 65, 72, 75, 82, 90, 109, 166, 173, 186, 193a, 206a,

214, 236, 245, 256, 270, 330

 

Petit basset griffon Vendeen: 21, 42, 65, 109, 166, 192, 245, 270, 312

 

Peruvian Inca orchid: 6, 9, 81, 109, 129, 142, 172, 216, 271, 285

 

Pharaoh hound: 9a, 10, 159a, 166, 220, 311a


Pointer: 8, 10, 36, 42, 44a, 65, 80, 89, 103, 109, 149c, 152, 166, 178, 213, 214a, 215, 230,

231, 239, 242a, 256, 258a, 318, 330

 

Polish lowland sheepdog (PONS): 166, 192, 193a, 214, 312, 318

 

Pomeranian: 9b, 42, 70, 73, 87, 88, 103, 110, 136, 137, 140, 149, 162, 165, 166, 184, 186,

192, 210, 219, 235, 236, 256, 273a, 312, 313

 

Portuguese podengo (pequino, medio, grande): 27, 67, 70, 88, 94, 103, 109, 114, 166, 171,

185, 195, 228, 235, 262, 319

 

Portuguese water dog: 9a, 38, 42, 85b, 88, 128a, 147, 159a, 166, 188a,

192, 193a, 199, 245, 256, 273a, 299b, 312

 

Pug: 9a, 10, 22, 50, 54, 57, 65, 67, 76, 80, 81, 85, 88, 90, 98, 98a, 103, 109, 116, 128, 143,

145, 149, 150, 152, 166, 173, 179, 181, 185, 195, 196, 210a, 230, 235, 246, 256, 259, 293,

295, 304a, 308, 309, 317

 

Puli: 27, 42, 152, 166, 256, 270

 

Rhodesian ridgeback: 21, 42, 45, 51, 81, 84, 103, 143a, 146, 152, 166, 190a, 192, 218a, 221,

221a, 245, 256, 312, 330

 

Rottweiler: 9a, 27, 42, 85, 88, 94, 95, 103, 105, 129, 129a, 146, 149c, 152, 159a, 161, 166,

172, 190a, 192, 193, 218a, 221, 221a, 225, 231, 245, 250b, 256, 258a, 269, 270, 300, 311a,

312, 326, 328, 330

 

Saint Bernard: 27, 31, 38, 42, 60, 72, 83, 85b, 88, 94, 94a,103, 109, 114, 118, 121, 122, 128,

131, 133, 140, 147, 148, 149, 152, 155, 166, 188, 198, 221, 221a, 225, 262, 273a, 298, 325,

328, 329, 330

 

Saluki: 14, 27, 42, 65, 103, 146, 166, 214, 245, 256, 269, 270, 311a, 330

 

Samoyed: 9b, 24, 42, 65, 85, 88, 89, 103, 121, 135, 140, 146, 147, 149, 149b, 152, 166, 192,

204a, 221, 221a, 240, 242, 245, 256, 260, 269, 270, 273a, 274, 303a, 311a, 312, 328, 330

 

Schipperke: 42, 85, 88, 103, 166, 185, 202b, 207, 239, 245, 256

 

Scottish deerhound: 31, 42, 105, 131, 158, 166, 221, 221a

 

Scottish terrier: 5, 10, 22, 37, 42, 68, 75, 78, 80, 81, 122, 129, 140, 148, 149a, 166, 186, 193,

197, 206, 245, 256, 272, 273a, 294, 313a, 324, 330

 

Sealyham terrier: 22, 42, 81, 135, 166, 186, 245, 256, 269, 270

 

Shetland sheepdog: 5, 37, 42, 52, 52a, 58, 59, 65, 82, 86, 88, 108, 121, 122, 129, 147, 148,

149a, 151, 152, 157, 166, 176a, 192, 220, 236, 245, 256, 270, 306, 312, 313a, 328, 329, 330

 

Shiba inu: 9, 10, 21, 22, 27, 42, 43, 115, 152, 157a, 166, 235, 324a, 329


Shih tzu: 1, 42, 54, 55, 83, 88, 89, 94, 103, 110, 146, 149, 166, 173, 179, 181, 182, 187, 256,

266, 266a, 269, 311a, 317, 322a, 330

 

Shiloh shepherd: 16a, 31, 61c, 105, 131, 152, 166, 172, 229, 231, 231a, 266, 290a

 

Siberian husky: 9b, 41, 42, 65, 86, 103, 104, 121, 128a, 135, 147, 149,152, 157c, 166, 184a,

186, 192, 221, 221a, 230, 245, 256, 270, 312, 324a, 328, 329, 330, 334

 

Silken windhound: 70, 78, 166, 176a, 192, 312, 318

 

Silky terrier: 42, 57, 70, 85, 154, 185, 188a, 193a, 235, 245, 256, 311a, 313

 

Skye terrier: 27, 88, 101, 111, 163, 166, 183, 186, 192, 206, 312, 316, 330

 

Sloughi: 166, 256

 

Smooth fox terrier: 3, 10, 21, 22, 42, 78, 81, 87, 88, 112, 135, 138, 166, 185, 186, 206, 221,

221a, 243, 260, 288, 330

 

Soft-coated Wheaten terrier: 9a, 10, 22, 42, 81, 159a, 166, 172, 220, 245, 253, 256, 258a,

258b, 266a, 270, 330

 

Spinone Italiano: 9a, 44a, 91,95, 96, 97 103, 152, 159a,166, 192, 312

 

Staffordshire bull terrier: 42, 109, 143a, 166

 

Standard dachshund: 1, 4, 5, 8, 42, 43b, 54, 55, 61, 65, 70, 72, 75, 78, 80, 83, 85, 94a, 103,

115, 129, 135, 140, 146, 156, 161, 166, 173, 176, 179, 181, 187, 192, 196, 199, 214, 214a, 216,

220, 224, 228, 230, 237, 239, 242a, 245, 250, 256, 263, 267, 273a, 275,

296, 297, 311a, 312, 326, 328, 330

 

Standard Manchester terrier: 42, 72, 109, 135, 166, 185, 186, 237, 256, 330

 

Standard poodle: 9a, 10, 21, 22, 27, 31, 42, 61, 81, 88, 103, 109, 110, 121, 124a, 135, 140,

144, 146, 147, 152, 159a, 166, 175, 184, 186, 192, 199, 220, 221, 221a, 223, 230, 245, 256,

269, 273a, 311a, 312, 330

 

Standard schnauzer: 9a, 23, 42, 62, 121, 147, 166, 192, 193, 221, 221a, 240, 260, 270, 286,

299a, 312, 330

 

Sussex spaniel: 37b, 38, 42, 81b, 88, 103, 173, 235, 236, 260, 270, 310, 327

 

Swiss mountain dog (greater Swiss mountain dog): 221, 221a, 249, 311, 311a

 

Thai ridgeback: 84, 152

 

Tibetan mastiff: 27, 95, 152, 158, 166, 192, 221, 245, 312, 330

 

Tibetan terrier: 14, 42, 78, 103, 157d, 186, 193a, 199, 214, 245, 250b, 256, 270


Tosu inu: 10, 27, 157a, 166

 

Toy fox terrier: 21, 80, 81, 235, 185, 330

 

Toy Manchester terrier: 42, 166, 186, 237, 256, 330

 

Toy poodle: 5, 10, 22, 26, 27, 42, 49, 57, 70, 78, 81, 85, 88, 92, 93, 103, 109, 110, 111, 121,

124a, 135, 136, 140, 144, 146, 147, 149, 156, 165, 166, 173, 175, 184, 186, 193a, 199, 220,

221, 221a, 223, 226, 230, 235, 236, 256, 269, 273a, 275, 294, 311a, 313, 322a, 327, 330

 

Vizsla: 21, 27, 42, 68, 80, 81, 103, 109, 117, 121, 140, 143a, 147, 152,161, 166, 192, 193, 221,

221a, 256, 273a, 289, 296, 305, 312, 318, 319, 326

 

Weimaraner: 27, 31, 43b, 61, 65, 80, 88, 103, 105, 114, 121, 131, 140, 142, 147, 150,152, 158,

160a, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 178a, 196, 206, 250, 256, 273a, 289, 296, 305, 311b, 318, 319,

326

 

Welsh springer spaniel: 42, 135, 152, 166, 192, 245, 256, 312

 

Welsh terrier: 42, 135, 166, 186, 190a, 218a, 330

 

West Highland white terrier: 2, 4, 9a, 10, 21, 22, 37, 42, 52a, 64, 68, 71, 80, 81, 106, 130,

136, 156, 159a, 171, 181, 185, 186, 199, 245, 250, 263, 270, 276, 313a, 331, 331a

 

Whippet: 42, 61, 70, 80, 103, 143a, 166, 186, 221, 221a, 234, 237, 256, 330

 

Wire-haired fox terrier: 3, 21, 22, 37, 42, 78, 81, 87, 88, 103, 112, 135,138, 166, 185, 186,

206, 243, 256, 260, 286, 288, 310, 313a, 330

 

Wire-haired pointing griffon: 152, 206a, 226

 

Yorkshire terrier: 42, 57, 70, 71, 80, 88, 103, 149, 154, 160, 162, 166, 179, 181, 185, 199a,

235, 236, 245, 252a, 256, 269, 270, 276, 313, 330


Section II:

 

1. Aberrant cilia: eyelashes growing abnormally, such as rubbing against the eyeball. (See

#88)

 

2. Abnormal copper metabolism: (usually Bedlington terriers, American cocker spaniels, West Highland white terriers, or Doberman pinschers) an inability to utilize and store copper properly, resulting in liver disease and other problems. (See #64)

 

3. Abnormal dentition: abnormal placement, number and development of teeth.

 

4. Acanthosis nigricans: (usually dachshunds) a skin disease where the skin becomes thickened and dark, primarily affecting the axillae (armpits).

 

5. Achondroplasia: abnormal development of cartilage leading to dwarfism (seen aberrantly in most breeds, but that's what makes a Basset hound and other achondroplastic breeds long and low).

 

6. Acne: same thing as in humans, affects the muzzle and lip areas.

 

7. Acral lick dermatitis: a skin disease caused by an animal's licking a localized area excessively, especially on the legs and paws.

 

8. Acral mutilation: a progressive self-mutilation of the feet and legs. Also known as peripheral sensory neuropathy in pointing breeds because they are born without pain sensation. (See

#242a)

 

9. Acute moist dermatitis: known as "hot spots," a localized area of a severely itchy, inflamed and oozing dermatitis exacerbated by the animal's intense licking and chewing at the spot.

 

9a. Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism): a disease characterized by inadequate secretion of cortisone from the adrenal glands. More common in Old English sheepdogs, bearded collies, standard poodles, Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers, leonbergers, Eurasiers, and Weimaraners. (See #159a)

 

9b. Adrenal sex hormone dermatosis: also called “alopecia-x,” this disorder is caused by overproduction of adrenal sex hormones and results in patchy or generalized hair loss over the trunk. Seen in young male Pomeranians, keeshonden, Siberian huskies, and samoyeds, as well as other breeds.

 

10. Allergies: same as in humans. Dogs can be allergic to things they come in contact with, eat or inhale.

 

11. Amyloidosis: a condition where abnormal deposits of proteinaceous material called amyloid are laid down in tissues and impair their function. Common in Akitas and Chinese shar peis.

 

12. Anasarca: a condition where neonatal puppies have an abnormal accumulation of fluids in their tissues. Often seen in English bulldogs.


13. Anemia with chondrodysplasia: a condition of Alaskan malamutes where there is malformation and maldevelopment of cartilage and red blood cells. Also called stomatocytosis because of the mouth-like shape of red blood cells.

 

14. Anesthetic idiosyncracy: a condition where an individual has an abnormal response to commonly used anesthetics sometimes leading to death. Idiosyncratic means there is no good explanation or way to predict this.

 

15. Anomaly of third cervical vertebra: a malformation of one of the neck bones in the spinal column.

 

16. Anophthalmia: a condition where an animal is born without any eyes.

 

16a. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture: a condition where this ligament is loose and tears or ruptures, usually during exercise. Affected stifle joints demonstrate a classical “drawer“ sign (forward or backward sliding of the joint) upon palpation. Can be unilateral or bilateral. Commonly associated with hypothyroidism.

 

17. Aortic body tumors: a cancer that arises from a small organ at the base of the aorta, near the heart.

 

18. Apocrine gland tumor: a cancer arising from glands which secrete fluids (such as mammary glands).

 

19. Arteriovenous fistula: an abnormal connection that forms between arteries and veins.

 

20. Ataxia: incoordination associated with a variety of central and peripheral nervous system abnormalities, spinal cord instability or inner ear disorders. An autosomal recessive trait seen in many breeds and with episodes of spasmodic muscle activity in Parsons (Jack) Russell terriers. (See #44a).

 

21. Atopic dermatitis: a skin disease caused by a dog's reaction to an inhalant allergy. (See

#81)

 

22. Atopy: an allergy caused from things dogs inhale.

 

23. Atresia of nasolacrimal puncta: a condition where the holes on the inside of the lower eyelids (puncta) are too small or closed so tears spill over the lid instead of draining to the nose.

 

24. Atrial septal defects: a malformation of the dividing wall between two chambers of the heart, usually resulting in a hole which then causes blood flow abnormalities.

 

24a. Avian tuberculosis: an often fatal infection in immune deficient animals due to avian tuberculosis. Seen in basset hounds and miniature schnauzers.

 

25. Avulsion fractures: fractures of the bones caused by a piece being ripped away, usually because of its strong attachment to a ligament or tendon.

 

26. Basal cell tumor: a cancer arising from a type of skin cell.


27. Behavioral abnormalities: a whole range of abnormal behavior patterns, such as aggression, panic disorders, etc., obsessive compulsive disorders like spinners” or tail chasing, and pica seen in bull terriers. Can be associated with hypothyroidism and thyroiditis.

 

28. Bithoracic ectromelia: a condition where the front leg bones are very small or absent.

 

29. Blepharospasm: an abnormal tightening of the muscles around the eyes, which causes repetitive blinking.

 

30. Blindness: an inability to see due to a large variety of causes.

 

31. Bloat: a condition where a dog's stomach produces excessive gas and enlarges severely enough to cause death without immediate treatment. Usually associated with gastric torsion (gastric dilatation volvulus; GDV). (See #131)

 

32. Blue eyes: an adverse reaction to certain older vaccines containing infectious canine hepatitis virus (adenovirus-1) which produces a bluish discoloration to the cornea. Current vaccines that protect against this disease use only adenovirus- 2 , to avoid the blue eye complication.

 

32a. Bronzing skin syndrome: a condition in Dalmatians and Bedlington terriers causing bronze discoloration of the skin, albeit for different reasons.

 

33. Bullous pemphigoid: an autoimmune (i.e., the body attacking itself) disease associated with the formation of painful blisters.

 

34. Bundle branch block: an abnormality of the electrical conduction mechanism of the heart.

 

35. Bundle of His degeneration: a condition where a part of the electrical system of the heart deteriorates.

 

36. Calcinosis circumscripta: the development of lumps of hard calcium deposits in the skin.

 

37. Cancer, bladder: transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is prevalent in Scottish terriers and West Highland white terriers. Herbicide exposure increases the risk of TCC,

whereas increased consumption of green leafy and yellow orange vegetables the decreases the disease risk.

 

37a. Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD): a condition where the leukocytes fail to adhere normally, leading to recurrent infections. Seen in Irish setters and Irish red and white setters.

 

37b.  Cardiac valvular disease: weakness of  heart  valves  producing heart  murmurs and leading to cardiac failure. Prevalent in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

 

38. Cardiomyopathy: a disease of weakened heart muscles. Also called dilated cardiomyopthy (DCM). Associated with taurine deficiency in golden retrievers. Also, seen in giant breeds such as great Danes, salukis, boxers, American cocker spaniels, and Doberman pinschers.


38a. Carnitine deficiency: low concentrations of this quaternary amine are associated with reduced contraction and relaxation of cells, especially heart muscle, because it is involved in long-chain fatty acid transport within cells to generate metabolic energy. Deficiency of carnitine

is thereby linked to dilated cardiomyopathy. Seen in boxers and American cocker spaniels. (See

#38)

 

39. Carotid body tumors: cancer arising from a small organ located on the carotid in the neck.

 

40. Carpal subluxation: a condition where the "wrist" bones are loose and out of alignment.

 

41. Castration responsive dermatosis: a skin condition characterized by loss of hair, thickened skin and inflammation which responds to castration (i.e., hormonally dependent).

 

42. Cataract: as in humans, a change in structure of the lens of the eye leading to cloudiness and usually to blindness.

 

43. Cataract with microphthalmia: a condition where a dog has cataracts along with abnormally small eyes.

 

43a. Cavalier episodic falling syndrome: a neurological condition induced by exercise, excitement or frustration. Muscle tone increases, as affected dogs cannot relax muscles; so become rigid and fall over. Clinical signs occur typically at 4-7 months of age. A DNA marker test is available from the Animal Health Trust in UK.

 

43b. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency: a deficiency of T-lymphocyte function causing impaired immunity, chronic recurrent infections and stunted growth. Seen in Weimaraners and dachshunds. (See #311b)

 

44. Cellulitis (folliculitis and furunculosis): inflammation and infection of the cells of the skin including the hair follicles and deeper structures.

 

44a. Cerebellar ataxia: an x-chromosome-linked disorder of pointers, and an autosomal recessive disease of several other breeds. Affected puppies have episodes of dysmetria (“goose stepping”), nystagmus, and disorientation, which progresses to marked ataxia in puppies or progressively up to 16 months of age. Seen in Kerry blue terriers, Coton de tulear, Parsons (Jack) Russell terrier, and Chinese crested among others.

 

45. Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy: malformation of the neurons in the cerebellum, a part of the brain. (See #47)

 

46. Cerebellar degeneration: a condition where a part of the brain deteriorates.

 

47. Cerebellar and extrapyramidal abiotrophy: a condition where the neurons in the cerebellum part of the brain and parts of the spinal cord are malformed and eventually malfunction. Seen in many breeds such as Kerry blue terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, old English sheepdog, Brittany spaniel, and Gordon setter.

 

48. Cerebellar hypoplasia: a condition where the cerebellum, a part of the brain, is poorly formed (too small or absent) and doesn't function properly or at all.


49. Cerebrospinal demyelination: a condition where the neurons of the brain and spinal cord are malformed, lacking a specialized sheath, which causes malfunction.

 

50. Cervical disc disease: a degeneration or malformation of the cushioning discs between the spinal column bones (vertebrae) in the neck.

 

51. Cervical vertebral malformation or instability: a malformation of the vertebrae in the neck usually leading to nerve damage. Commonly seen in Doberman pinschers and causes a hackneyed gait (high stepping). (See #292, 332)

 

52. Choroidal hypoplasia: the technical name for collie eye anomaly (see #58), this autosomal recessive disorder causes improper development of the choroid vascular layer under the retina of the eye in young puppies. Thee is no treatment or cure. Seen in collies, border collies, Shetland sheepdogs, Australian shepherds and Lancashire heelers.

 

52a. Chronic progressive hepatitis: an increasingly comomon disease sometimes called chronic active hepatitis and seen primarily in Doberman pinschers, Dalmatians, Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers, and Shetland sheepdogs. (See #2, 62)

 

53. Ciliary dyskinesia: congenital trait in several breeds where all ciliated cells (those with hairs or moving appendages) are deformed and rigid. Also called immotile cilia syndrome and Kartagener's syndrome. Causes chronic pneumonia and sterility. Common in bichon frise and Doberman pinschers.

 

54. Cleft lip: a condition where the two halves of the upper lip do not join together. Cleft palate and cleft lip are often seen together.

 

55. Cleft palate: a condition where the roof of the mouth is not closed and the inside of the nose opens into the mouth.

 

56. Coliform enteritis: an inflammation of the bowel caused by a certain group of bacteria, commonly due to fecal contamination.

 

57. Collapsed trachea: a condition where the cartilage rings that make up the trachea are malformed and tend to collapse easily.

 

58. Collie eye anomaly: detected by ophthalmologic examination between 5-8 weeks of age. Seen worldwide in several breeds as well as rough and smooth collies. In mild disease, vision may not be impaired, but mildly affected dogs can produce severely affected offspring. In severe form, colobomas and retinal detachment can occur by about 2 years of age, although total blindness is rarely seen. Genetic testing from a blood sample can distinguish normal, carrier,

and affected dogs.

 

59. Coloboma: an abnormal development of the eye, usually seen in collies, which can lead to blindness. (See #58, 60, 203)

 

60. Colobomas with aphakia: same as above but with congenital absence of the lens.

 

60a. Color dilution alopecia: a form of follicular dysplasia causing various degrees of hair loss in middle-aged blue and fawn Doberman pinschers.


 

61. Color mutant alopecia: a condition where certain colored areas of a dog's skin grows less or no fur. Commonly seen in Yorkshire terriers, blue and fawn Doberman pinschers, and fawn Irish setters.

 

61a. Combined immunodeficiency: a severe combined deficiency of cell-mediated immunity (T-cell function) and low concentrations of serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and variably IgM). Affected puppies usually die from viral infections by 12-16 weeks of age. Seen in Basset hounds. (See #43a, 168, 169, 170)

 

61b. Complement deficiency: a deficiency in serum concentrations of the third component of complement  which  impairs  neutrophil  function  and  causes  recurrent  infections.  Seen  in Brittanys.

 

61c. Compressive myelopathy: a condition of Shiloh shepherds with malformed spinal vertebral processes which compress the spinal cord and cause spastic paraparesis, acute progressive pelvic limb weakness and incoordination (ataxia). (See #290a)

 

61d. Congenital heart defects: a condition where the heart is abnormal at birth. Present in many breeds.

 

61e. Congenital stationary night blindness: a condition at birth where affected pups cannot see at night. Seen in briards.

 

62. Conjunctivitis: an inflammation of the conjunctival membrane of the eye.

 

63. Conus septal defect: a developmental abnormality of the right heart.

 

64. Copper storage abnormality in liver: (See #2)

 

65. Corneal dystrophy: an abnormality of the cornea usually characterized by shallow pits in the surface.

 

66. Corneal leukomas: an abnormal accumulation of a white material in or on the cornea.

 

67. Corneal ulcer, superficial: an erosion of the outer membrane and outer surface of the cornea.

 

68. Craniomandibular osteopathy: an abnormal development of the bones of the face and the jaw. Seen in West Highland white and Cairn terriers, among other breeds.

 

69. Cranioschisis: abnormal development of the skull characterized by openings between or in the bones.

 

69a. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction: delayed swallowing times causing dysphagia (see #89a)

observed on videofluoscopy. Seen in golden retrievers.

 

70. Cryptorchidism: a condition where one testicle does not descend into the scrotal sac.


71. Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism): a common disease characterized by an excess secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Most often seen in middle aged females. (See #156)

 

72. Cutaneous asthenia: a condition where the skin lacks its normal strength, elasticity and sensation. Also called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Seen in several breeds, including English springer spaniels and boxers. (See #94a)

 

72a. Cutaneous mucinosis: (See #202a)

 

72b. Cutaneous vasculopathy: a disease of autosomal recessive inheritance in which young puppies exhibit footpad swelling and depigmentation, with crusting and ulceration of the tips of ears and tail. Seen in German shepherd dogs.

 

73. Cyclic neutropenia: a condition characterized by periodic lowering of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell. Commonly seen in grey collies.

 

74. Cystic ovaries: a condition where the ovarian follicles become cystic (fluid filled) leading to hormonal imbalances and other problems.

 

75. Cystinuria: an abnormal excretion of a substance (cystine) in the urine.

 

76. Cystitis and cystic calculi: infection of the bladder which often leads to formation of abnormal mineral deposits (bladder stones). Prevalent in certain breeds.

 

77. Dacryocystitis: inflammation of a tear sac.

 

78. Deafness: an inability to hear, due to many different causes. In Dalmatians, congenital deafness is associated with blue eye color.

 

79. Deformed tail: a congenital condition where the tail is malformed.

 

79a. Degenerative myelopathy: progressive disorder primarily in German shepherd dogs where the spinal cord degenerates and causes rear limb weakness and incoordination. Can end up with cauda equine syndrome, where the nerve roots at the end of the spinal column

become atrophied.

 

80. Demodicosis: a kind of skin disease (mange) caused by microscopic Demodex canis mites living within the skin layers and producing an immunodeficiency syndrome.

 

81. Dermatitis, atopic: inflammation and subsequent infection of the skin due to atopy. (See

#21, 22)

 

82. Dermatomyositis: a disease affecting the skin and muscles, usually in collies or Shetland sheepdogs.

 

83. Dermoid cyst: a small growth composed of skin-like structures.

 

84. Dermoid sinus: similar to a dermoid cyst but usually larger. Seen in Rhodesian and Thai ridgebacks.


 

 

85. Diabetes mellitus: a metabolic disease caused by insulin deficiency and characterized by the inability to utilize sugars normally.

 

85a. Digital hyperkeratosis: a condition of Irish terrier puppies that causes marked thickening of the foot pads. Affected feet crack, become infected and painful.

 

85b. Dilated cardiomyopathy(DCM): See #38.

 

86. Discoid lupus erythematosus: a form of autoimmune disease affecting the skin.

 

87. Dislocation of shoulder: a condition where the bones of the shoulder joint are out of proper position.

 

88. Distichiasis: abnormally growing eyelashes.

 

88a. Dry eye curly coat syndrome in Cavaliers: a congenital keratoconjunctivitis sicca plus ichtyosiform dermatosis syndrome. Affected dogs cannot produce tears and have very dry and flaky skin especially on feet; standing and walking is painful and so most are euthanized. A DNA marker test is available from the Animal Health Trust in UK.

 

89. Dwarfism: an abnormality of the normal growth pattern resulting in an undersized individual.

 

89a. Dysphagia: inability to swallow properly. (See #69a)

 

90. Dystocia: complications of the birth process (difficult birth).

 

91. Eclampsia: convulsions usually seen around the time of parturition (whelping).

 

92. Ectodermal defects: any of a multitude of abnormalities arising from maldevelopment of the fetal ectoderm (e.g., skin, nervous system, eyes).

 

93. Ectopic ureters: the ureters (tubes leading from the kidneys to the bladder) do not empty into the bladder in the normal location.

 

94. Ectropion: an abnormal rolling out of the eyelids.

 

94a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a connective tissue disease characterized by loose, hyperextensible and very fragile skin that tears easily. (See #72)

 

95. Elbow dysplasia: an abnormal development of the elbow joint.

 

96. Elbow joint malformation: (See #95)

 

97. Elbow subluxation: a condition where the elbow joint is loose and out of alignment.

 

98. Elongated soft palate: the soft palate is abnormally long and causes breathing disorders.

 

98a. Encephalitis: an inflammatory condition of the brain causing signs of central nervous system dysfunction and epilepsy (seizures). A unique form of heritable encephalitis is prevalent


in the pug breed and is called “Pug Dog Encephalitis.” More common in fawn colored females under age 7 years. A genetic screening test is available. (See #109, 210a)

 

99. Endocardial fibroelastosis: an abnormal condition of scarring of the muscles of the heart.

 

100. Endometritis: inflammation of the internal layer of the uterus.

 

101. Enlarged foramen magnum: a condition in which the opening in the skull where the vertebral column begins is too large.

 

102. Enostosis: a bony growth within the hollow part of a bone.

 

102a. Episodic falling syndrome of Cavaliers: a neurological condition of young puppies induced by exercise, excitement or frustration. (See # 43a)

 

103. Entropion: an abnormal rolling in of the eyelid.

 

104. Eosinophilic granuloma: an allergic reactive syndrome characterized by the plaque-like accumulation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.

 

105. Eosinophilic panosteitis: a painful inflammatory bone disease of young, rapidly growing dogs, often characterized by increased eosinophils in the blood. (See #231)

 

106. Epidermal dysplasia: abnormal development of the outer layer of the skin. Common in

West Highland white terriers and begins in puppyhood. (See #331.)

 

107. Epidermoid cyst: a small growth consisting of tissues of the outer layer of the skin. (See

#274)

 

108. Epidermolysis bullosa: an abnormal looseness to the skin characterized by large, deep, blister-like lesions.

 

109.  Epilepsy:  a  disease  characterized  by  convulsions  (seizures)  and/or  disturbances  of consciousness. Hypothyroidism can predispose to seizures.

 

110. Epiphora: abnormal draining of tears often due to overproduction.

 

111. Epiphyseal dysplasia: abnormal development of the epiphysis, a part of the long bones.

 

112. Esophageal achalasia: a functional stricture or spasm of the muscles of the esophagus where it joins the stomach.

 

113. Esophageal dilatation: an abnormally large and usually flaccid esophagus.

 

114. Eversion of nictitating membrane: a condition where the third eyelid is protruding. Also called “cherry eye”.

 

114a. Exercise-induced collapse: seen in Cavalier King Charles spaniel puppies associated with exercise- or excitement-induced muscle hypertonicity (similar to startle disease in people).


Also seen in young adult field trial Labrador retrievers.

 

115. Eye abnormality: any of a number of problems with the eye.

 

116. Facial fold dermatitis: an infection of the facial skin caused by unusual or excessive skin folds (seen in dogs such as the Pekingese or Chinese shar pei).

 

117. Facial nerve paralysis: a decrease or cessation of function of the facial nerve leading to a drooping of the affected side of the face.

 

118. Factor I deficiency or hypofibrinogenemia: a rare deficiency of a clotting factor

(fibrinogen), which causes excessive bleeding.

 

119.  Factor  II  deficiency or  hypoprothrombinemia: a  rare  deficiency of  prothrombin, a clotting factor needed to control bleeding.

 

120. Factor VII deficiency: a mild bleeding disease primarily of beagle dogs.

 

121. Factor VIII deficiency or hemophilia A: the most common severe inherited clotting disorder of humans and nonhuman animals. Inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait (carried by females and manifested in males). Affects most dog breeds.

 

122. Factor IX deficiency or hemophilia B: same as hemophilia A, but more rare and involves a different clotting factor. Affects about 20 dog breeds.

 

123. Factor X deficiency: a rare clotting disorder primarily of American cocker spaniels. An autosomal trait (affects both sexes).

 

124. Factor XI deficiency: a rare clotting disorder of several dog breeds. Protracted bleeding from surgical procedures is a feature. Affects both sexes.

 

124a. Factor XII deficiency: a clotting factor deficiency that rarely produces clinical signs. Seen in toy and standard poodles and occasionally in other breeds. Usually diagnosed incidentally during blood testing for potential bleeding disorder.

 

124b. Familial amaurotic idiocy: deposits of fatty pigments in the brain produce loss of vision, stupor, and seizures. Seen in English setters, German short-haired pointers, and Australian cattle dogs. (See #177, 193a, 214)

 

124c. Fanconi syndrome: a kidney tubular dysfunction of basenjis which leads to glycosuria. (See #268)

 

124d. Femoral artery occlusion: a rather common disorder of genetic predisposition and probable weakness in the femoral artery wall of Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

 

125. Fibrosarcoma: a cancer arising from certain types of fibrous cells.

 

126. Fibrous histiocytoma: a type of fibrous tumor arising from cells called histiocytes.


127. Flank sucking: a behavioral problem common in Doberman pinschers and exhibited as a continually wet patch on the flank (from sucking the skin).

 

128. Fold dermatitis: an inflammation of skin folds especially in dogs with loose skin (e.g., Chinese shar pei).

 

128a. Follicular dysplasia: malformation of skin follicules.

 

129. Folliculitis: an infection of the hair follicles.

 

129a. Fragmented coronoid process: osteochondrosis of the elbow joint. (See #221a)

 

129b. Fucosidosis: an autosomal recessive, fatal disease caused by deficiency of alpha- fucosidase enzyme that results in accumulation of fucose-containing metabolites in cells throughout the body. Neurologic signs predominate. Seen in English springer spaniels.

(See #193a)

 

130. Furunculosis: an infection of the deeper structures of the skin.

 

131. Gastric torsion: a condition where the stomach twists, thereby impeding input and output, causing bloat (gastric dilatation volvulus; GDV). (See #31)

 

132. Generalized myopathy: a condition affecting all the muscles of the body which produces weakness.

 

133. Genu valgum: malformation of the knee joint ("knock-kneed").

 

134. Gingival hyperplasia: overgrowth of the gum tissues.

 

135. Glaucoma: abnormally high pressure in the eye.

 

136. Globoid cell leukodystrophy: abnormal development and/or function of certain types of white globoid cells in the brain. (See #193a)

 

136a. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy: also called wheat-sensitive enteropathy of Irish setters. Intolerance to foods containing glutens, affected dogs primarily have chronic diarrhea and weight loss. (See #258a)

 

137. Glycogen storage disease: a syndrome characterized by an inability to store and utilize carbohydrates. (See #193a.)

 

138. Goiter: a swelling of the thyroid gland.

 

138a. Granulocyte dysfunction or adhesion defect: an impairment of neutrophil function or adhesion which causes chronic recurring infections, stunted growth and secondary increase in immune globulins (hypergammaglobulinemia). Seen in Irish setters and Doberman pinschers.

 

139. Granulomatous colitis: a type of chronic inflammation of the colon characterized by reactive tissue growths.


 

 

140. Granulomatous sebaceous adenitis: a disease of sebaceous (sweat) skin glands characterized by reactive tissue growth and autoimmune destruction of the sebaceous glands. Hair loss occurs and is poorly responsive to treatment. Common in standard poodles, Akitas, samoyeds,vizslas and several other breeds.

 

141. Hair follicle tumors: abnormal growths of the hair follicles.

 

142. Hairlessness: also called alopecia or loss of hair. Can be a normal pattern for breeds like the Mexican hairless dog.

 

143. Hanging tongue: a syndrome where the tongue does not retract into the mouth properly, due to neurologic or anatomic defects. Commonly seen in Cavalier King Charles spaniels.

 

143a. Hemangiosarcoma: a serious cancer of blood vessels involving liver,spleen or skin.

 

144. Hemeralopia: inability to see in daylight.

 

144a. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis: an acute disorder characterized by bloody diarrhea, elevated hematocrit and shock. Common in miniature schnauzers.

 

145. Hemivertebra: a particular kind of malformation of the vertebra where only half of the structure is formed.

 

146. Hemolytic anemia: anemia caused by the destruction of the red blood cells by an autoimmune process. Particularly common along with thrombocytopenia in American cocker spaniels and old English sheepdogs, as well as many other breeds.

 

147. Hemophilia A: a blood clotting disorder due to deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (this is the most common type of hemophilia in dogs). (See #121)

 

148. Hemophilia B: a blood clotting disorder due to lack of coagulation factor IX. (See #122)

 

149. Hepatic portosystemic shunt or arteriovenous fistula: a malformation of blood vessels in the liver or an abnormal communication between the arteries and veins in the liver. (See

#199a, 252a)

 

149a. Hepatic lipidosis: an abnormal accumulation of lipids in the liver which leads to liver failure. Common in miniature schnauzers and Shetland sheepdogs.

 

149b. Hereditary nephritis: also called “samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy,” a sex-linked disease of young males. Affected dogs have renal glomerular disease which rapidly progresses to kidney failure and death. Female carriers have abnormal glomerular basement membrane, as well, but usually remain healthy until later in life when renal failure may occur.

 

149c. Hereditary spinal muscular atrophy: an autosomal dominant degenerative disease of motor neurons characterized by weakness and muscle atrophy with a typical gait, and progressing to dangling of the head and a drooping, paralyzed tail. Severely affected dogs


become paralyzed and die by 3-4 months of age. Seen in Brittany spaniels.

 

149d. Hepatocerebellar degeneration: a syndrome of progressive cerebellar and hepatic disease of 6-8-week-old Bernese mountain dogs with lesions of cerebellar abiotrophy and coexistent hepatic lesions. Autosomal recessive inheritance.

 

150. Hermaphroditism: a syndrome where the individual has anatomical features of both sexes.

 

151. Heterochromia, iris: the presence of different colors in the same or both irises.

 

152. Hip dysplasia: a developmental malformation or subluxation of the hip joints.

 

153. Histiocytoma: a common benign tumor of certain skin tissue cells (i.e., histiocytes).

 

153a. Histiocytosis: the most prevalent cancer of Bernese mountain dogs, usually leading to early death. Also called malignant histiocytosis.

 

154. Hydrocephalus: a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain.

 

155. Hygroma: a fluid-filled sac usually occurring on the elbows of large breed dogs such as the

Great Dane or Irish wolfhound.

 

156. Hyperadrenocorticism or Cushing's disease: a common disease where the adrenal glands are overactive. (See #71)

 

157. Hypercholesterolemia: a disease where the animal has too much cholesterol in the blood system. Commonly associated with hypothyroidism.

 

157a. Hyperkalemia: a benign condition of large Japanese dog breeds (Akita, Shiba inu, Tosu inu) in which the red blood cell membrane has an altered metabolism and leaks potassium into the serum making concentrations very high. The condition is aggravated by ingesting

onions.

 

157b. Hyperlipidemia: an idiopathic disorder of miniature schnauzers in which blood lipid levels become very high and predisposing to pancreatitis. (See #149a)

 

157c. Hyperphosphatasemia: a benign familial condition in humans and Siberian huskies in which serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are very high.

 

157d. Hypertrophic neuropathy: a form of polyneuropathy seen in Tibetan terriers. (See

#250a)

 

158. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy: a condition of rapidly growing giant breeds where there is an abnormal inflammation of bones with pain and development of excessive bony growths.

 

159. Hypertrophy of membrana nictitans gland: a condition where the gland of the third eyelid is abnormally large.


159a. Hypoadrenocorticism: a disease where autoimmune or other causes of destruction of the adrenal glands produces a deficiency of corticosteroids. (See #9a)

 

160. Hypoglycemia: a syndrome where the animal has an abnormally low blood glucose.

 

160a. Hypomyelinogenesis: failure of the nervous system to form myelin, seen at birth.

 

160b. Hypoparathyroidism: a disease where autoimmune or other causes of destruction of the parathyroid glands produces deficiency of parathormone (PTH), leading to severe hypocalcemia and requiring both calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation.

 

161. Hypopigmentation, lips and nose: a condition where an animal lacks pigment (color) in areas where it is usually present. (See #328)

 

162. Hypoplasia of dens: a condition where part of the second vertebra fails to develop fully and leads to instability.

 

163. Hypoplasia of larynx: a condition where the larynx (cartilage of the "voice box") fails to develop fully.

 

164. Hypoplasia of trachea: a trachea that fails to develop fully.

 

165. Hyposomatotropism: failure of the body growth hormones (somatomedins) to develop fully. Also known as growth hormone-responsive dermatosis. Common in pomeranians.

 

166. Hypothyroidism: a very common endocrine disease where the body produces an abnormally low amount of thyroid hormones. An autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland which affects more than 50 dog breeds. (See #192, 312)

 

167. Hypotrichosis: a condition where there is an abnormally small amount of hair growth.

 

168. Immunoglobulin A deficiency: a condition where concentrations of secretory immune globulins are low. Common in Chinese shar peis and beagles. (See #187)

 

169. Immunoglobulin G deficiency: a condition where circulating antibody concentrations are low. Produces immune deficiency and susceptibility to infections.

 

170. Immunoglobulin M deficiency: a condition where antibodies produced in early stages of an immune response are low, producing susceptibility to infection. Seen in Doberman pinschers.

 

171. Inguinal hernia: a break in the muscular layer of the body wall occurring at the inguinal canal (where the back leg meets the body).

 

171a. Inherited ventricular tachycardia: a condition of young German shepherds with very rapid heart rates, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death.

 

172. Intestinal malabsorption: a disease where the intestinal tract does not absorb nutrients properly. Also known as protein-losing enteropathy as a consequence of inflammatory bowel


disease. In Irish setters there is also a wheat-sensitive enteropathy. (See #194)

 

173. Intervertebral disc disease: a disease where the discs between the vertebra are abnormal and prone to rupture and misplacement.

 

174. Intussusception: a serious condition where the intestinal tract telescopes in on itself.

 

175. Iris atrophy: a condition where the iris (the colored part of the eye) shrinks and becomes non-functional.

 

176. Iris heterochromia: a condition where one iris is a different color from the other or has more than one color to it.

 

176a. Ivermectin sensitivity: a prevalent condition of collies and some other breeds where a mutation of the MDRI gene produces susceptibility to ivermectin toxicity.

 

177. Juvenile amaurotic idiocy: a syndrome characterized by early onset blindness and low mental capacity.

 

178. Juvenile cellulitis: an inflammation of cells (usually skin cells) occurring in the young animal.

 

178a. Juvenile polyarthritis: a form of arthritis affecting multiple joints of young Akitas, and usually occurring within 1-4 weeks of vaccination. Cases typically occur at 3-4 months of age after the second or subsequent booster vaccination and respond poorly to therapy. Affected dogs may progress to develop amyloidosis (#11) and renal failure.

 

179. Keratitis sicca: a condition where one or both eyes do not produce a normal amount or type of tears. (See #181)

 

180. Keratoacanthoma: a small growth, usually on the face, filled with keratin material.

 

181. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca: Also called “dry eye”, and associated with hypothyroidism in some breeds such as the American cocker spaniel. (See #179)

 

182. Kidney aplasia, unilateral: a developmental abnormality where one kidney fails to develop. Also called renal agenesis.

 

183. Kinked tail: a developmental abnormality where the tail has a pronounced kink.

 

184. Lacrimal duct atresia: a condition where the duct draining tears from the eye is too small or not formed.

 

184a. Laryngeal paralysis: a progressive paralysis of the larynx in young Bouvier des Flandres, Siberian huskies, and Dalmatians. In the Dalmatian, the condition is usually linked to polyneuropathy (#250a). Affected dogs have an unusual bark and are prone to aspiration pneumonia.

 

185. Legg-Perthes disease: a disease where the blood vessels feeding the femoral head (top


part of the thigh bone) shrink, leading to starvation and death of the femoral head (the ball of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip). Also called Legg-Calve'-Perthes disease. Most common in large breeds.

 

186. Lens luxation: a condition where the lens in the eye is displaced into an abnormal position.

 

187. Linear IgA dermatosis: a type of skin disease resulting from an abnormality of the secretory immune system. Common in Chinese shar peis.

 

188. Lip fold dermatitis: a skin infection caused by redundant skin folds around the mouth.

 

188a. Lipidosis: a form of lysosomal ‘storage’ disease where lipids accumulate in nerves. Called GM-1 gangliosidosis in Portuguese water dogs. (See #193a)

 

189. Lissencephaly: an abnormal brain development where the surface lacks gyri (the grooves).

 

190. Lung torsion: a condition where one or more lung lobes twist upon themselves.

 

190a. Lupoid onychodystrophy: (See #218a)

 

191. Lymphedema: a disorder where valvular blockage of lymph flow or twisted lymphatic ducts causes an accumulation of fluid to swell tissues with edema.

 

192. Lymphocytic thyroiditis: an autoimmune disease causing inflammation and destruction

of the thyroid gland, which becomes infiltrated with lymphocytes (white blood cells) and leads to hypothyroidism. This is the most common endocrine disease of the dog and has an inherited predisposition. (See #166, 312)

 

193. Lymphosarcoma: a cancerous condition involving the lymphatic system. One of the more common canine cancers.

 

193a. Lysosomal ‘storage’ diseases: a group of progressive multifocal neurologic disorders caused by specific enzyme deficiencies leading to death of nerve cells and accumulation of their respective enzyme substrates in cells. (See #299a)

 

194. Malabsorption syndrome: also called immunoproliferative enteropathy, which is immune- mediated and hereditary in the basenji (See #172)

 

194a. Malignant histiocytosis: the more aggressive, rapidly fatal systemic form of histiocytosis. Heritable in Bernese mountain dogs, with no cure. (See #153a)

 

194b. Malignant hyperthermia: an autosomal dominant trait of black Labrador retrievers. Very high body temperatures develop in response to gaseous anesthesia.

 

195. Malocclusion: a condition where the teeth do not meet properly.

 

196. Mastocytoma: a rare cancer developing from a type of tissue cell known as a mast cell.


196a. Megaesophagus: heritable and acquired lack of smooth muscle cell tone in the esophagus leading to inability t swallow normally and aspiration pneumonia. Also associated with myasthenia gravis and thymoma. Seen in many breeds but especially in German Shepherd Dogs.

 

197. Melanoma: a rare cancer developing from the type of skin cell which produces pigment

(melanin).

 

197a. “Merle” eye anomaly: (See #52, 58) The breeding of two merle colored parents can produce some offspring with whiter coat color. These puppies typically inherit a variety of anomalies of the back (fundus) of the eye, which can be confused with choroidal hypoplasia.

 

198. Metabolic bone disease: any of a number of diseases affecting the bones due to an abnormality of metabolism.

 

199. Microphthalmia: a condition where one or both eyes are too small.

 

199a. Microvascular dysplasia: (See #252a)

 

200. Missing teeth: a condition where there are too few teeth.

 

201. Mitral valve defects: a group of abnormalities of the mitral valve of the heart.

 

202. Mononephrosis: a condition where only one kidney is present. (See #182).

 

202a. Mucinosis: a common skin disorder of Chinese shar peis characterized by generalized pitting edematous folds, variable itching, and severe puffiness and wrinkling of the head and extremities. Vesicles may be present and rupture draining clear, stringy fluid. Often associated with hypothyroidism and IgA deficiency. (See #166, 168)